Thursday, June 24, 2010

KING SALARY RECEIPT FROM BRITISH CROWN


KING SALARY RECEIPT FROM BRITISH CROWN
INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

BANK OF BENGAL SHARE


BANK OF BENGAL SHARE

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

INDIA STOCK NOTE 1862


RARE U N C A T A L O G U E D BANK N O T E
INDIA STOCK NOTE 1891 FOR 100 RUPEES ISSUED BY ALLAHABAD CIRCLE,[similar to USA,P-280 USA 1860-91]A VERY RARE uncatalogued bank note of'' India stock note 1891''; with a small hole cancellation; as all notes are canceled due to an financial crisis of the world starting IN USA spreading to commonwealth and to INDIA. AN HISTORICAL PIECE .A MUST HAVE FOR RARE NOTES OF THE WORLD.
SIMILAR NOTE WAS ONLY ISSUED IN USA ONLY IN 1861-1890 with interest coupon attached.
INTEREST BEARING NOTES OF USA UNDER THE A CT OF 17-3-1861 [0897]
P 280 50$ eagle at center 7-3 / 10 % interest for 3 years coupons attached and printed with the bank note to be detached later as in INDIA STOCK NOTE OF 1890 WITH 4% INTEREST COUPON ATTACHED

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

RARE CHINESE ISLAMIC CLOTH BANKNOTE


RARE CHINESE ISLAMIC CLOTH BANKNOTE
INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

GEORGE VI 10 RUPEES UNC BANKNOTE


Hello Numisphila Friend,Like to exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.

british india,indian banknotes,bengal british india banknotes,french india,republic india,bengal history,postalhistory,banknotes,moghul,sultanate coins bank of bombay,bank of bengal,moghul farmans,king salary reciepts,ancient coins,BUDDHA,bhuddism in india,presidency banknotes,

NOTE ;;;please send meterial only by REGISTERD MAIL W/ STRONG PAPER DOUBLE COVER OK THANKS,and inform me by email please

http://indianbanknotes.blogspot.com

http://banknotepricelist.blogspot.com

http://borninpost.blogspot.com


THANK YOU FOR ALL. please pass on info about me and my blog OK,
NOTE:Please send notes for registered post, i will send by same OK

M.DAMODHAR
BlockNo30,1floor,
SanjevayyaNagarcolony,
WestMarredpally
secunderabad;500026 INDIA


INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

BRITISH INDIA 5 RUPEES GEORGE 6 UNC x3 SERIAL NO


BRITISH INDIA 5 RUPEES GEORGE 6 UNC RARE IN THIS CONDITION,x3 SERIAL NO

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

one rupee gandhi unc banknote


one rupee gandhi unc banknote
INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

BOTSWANA SPECIMEN ALL 00000


BOTSWANA SPECIMEN ALL 00000

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

100 rupees elephant ERROR banknote RARE UNC





INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

Monday, June 7, 2010

Elephants 100 rs India


Elephants 100 rs India

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

Sunday, June 6, 2010

Stamps of INDIAN culture,mythology,arts,monuments,persons



Stamps of INDIAN culture,mythology,arts,monuments,persons

BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

flat wall type front for AEROPLANE,Rustproof Ironpillar of 400AD



flat wall type front for AEROPLANE,Rustproof Ironpillar of 400AD

See flat wall type front for AEROPLANE,Rustproof Ironpillar of 400AD;MY hobbiesPhilately, Numismatics,Epigraphy,Ancient Science,Pyretics,Metallurgy,Astronomy,Vaastu,Mathematics,geography,Mythology,ancient coins, gods,Telugu cinema,HISTORY OF Playing Cards. Stamps. Coins, Currency notes ,HISTORY OF BANKING ,Rulers,India,Sciences,vedic literature,echo sound,Forts,Hyderabad.BHUDDHISM,SOUTH INDIA,satavahana,Coins of BHUDDHA,Banking,BANK OF BENGAL,TEMPLES,ANDHRA,WONDERS, radio DXING collect QSLcards,history of handloom textiles,Islamic science from QURAN and others texts of 10 Century AD
TEMPLES,ANDHRA,WONDERS,

後悔される革新、inconveinence の下の 場所。



watermachine bow shooting as by arjuna,FUNNY here KRISHNA shoots arrow seeing in water,Hally comet described in hidu astronomical textbooks,bhutan vastu,ASHWAGHOSA in combodian stamp,Egyptian link with indian scriptures,son the list goes on here are the proofs on official govt issued postal stamps,which no one can challenge.KRISHNA SHOOTING MATYSAYANTRA ANY ONE CAN BELIEVE,YES SEE IT ON THE STAMP OF INDIAN POSTS.
INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

Islamic Science and Development history,In Quran View.


Islamic Science and Development history,In Quran View.

In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under Islamic civilization between the 8th and 15th centuries, during what is known as the Islamic Golden Age. It is also known as Arabic science since the majority of texts during this period were written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization. Despite these terms, not all scientists during this period were Muslim or Arab, as there were a number of notable non-Arab scientists (most notably Persians), as well as some non-Muslim scientists, who contributed to scientific studies in the Islamic world.

A number of modern scholars such as Fielding H. Garrison,Bertrand Russell, Abdus Salam and Hossein Nasr consider modern science and the scientific method to have been greatly influenced by Muslim scientists who introduced a modern empirical, experimental and quantitative approach to scientific inquiry. Some scholars, notably Donald Routledge Hill, Ahmad Y Hassan, Abdus Salam,and George Saliba, have referred to their achievements as a Muslim scientific revolution, though this does not contradict the traditional view of the Scientific Revolution which is still supported by most scholars

According to many historians, science in Islamic civilization flourished until the 14th century AD.

Islam and the development of science

Whether Islamic culture has promoted or hindered scientific advancement is disputed. Islamists such as Sayyid Qutb argue that since “Islam appointed” Muslims “as representatives of God and made them responsible for learning all the sciences,science cannot but prosper in a society of true Muslims. Many “classical and modern
the history of Islamic science

the history of Islamic sciencethe history of Islamic science,CREATION STORY,400 years old historical mosque at Hyderabad

sources agree that the Qur’an condones, even encourages the acquisition of science and scientific knowledge, and urges humans to reflect on the natural phenomena as signs of God’s creation.” Some scientific instruments produced in classical times in the Islamic world were inscribed with Qur’anic citations. Many Muslims agree that doing science is an act of religious merit, even a collective duty of the Muslim community

Others say traditional interpretations of Islam are not compatible with the development of science. Author Rodney Stark, explains Islam’s lag behind the West in scientific advancement after (roughly) 1500 AD to opposition by traditional ulema to efforts to formulate systematic explanation of natural phenomenon with “natural laws.” They believed such laws were blasphemous because they limit “Allah’s freedom to act” as He wishes. This principle was enshired in aya 14:4: “Allah sendeth whom He will astray, and guideth whom He will,” which (they believed) applied to all of creation not just humanity.

In the early twentieth century ulema forbade the learning of foreign languages and dissection of human bodies in the medical school in Iran. The ulama at the Islamic university of Al-Azhar in Cairo taught the Ptolemaic astronomical system (in which the sun circles the earth) until compelled to adopt the Copernican system by the Egyptian government in 1961.

後悔される革新、inconveinence の下の 場所。

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なさい 旅行の協同に Yo u に感謝しなさい

Numisphilately とa のncient 科学のあなたのs の友人

Musham Damodhar musham@gmail.com

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Место под сожаленной РЕНОВАЦИЕЙ, inconveinence.

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Возблагодарите Yo у для сотрудничества путешествия

Ваш друг с в науке Numisphilately и а ncient

musham damodhar, musham@gmail.com

################################################

Local sob o RENOVATION, inconveinence lamentado.

contatar-nos em musham@gmail.com para a informação

nesta seção Obrigado

Seu amigo em Numisphilately e na ciência antiga

musham damodhar, musham@gmail.com

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

Site under RENOVATION,inconveinence regretted.

contact us at musham@gmail.com for information in this

section

Thank You

Yours friend in Numisphilately and ancient Science

musham damodhar musham@gmail.com

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

PiriReis map of USA,southamerica,Antarctica before Columbus,


PiriReis map of USA,southamerica,Antarctica before Columbus,
Ancient map with antarctica,americas,without ice cap.

Ancient map with antarctica,americas,without ice cap.

The map is a famous pre-modern world map created by 16th century Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer Reis. The map shows part of the western coasts of Europe and North Africa with reasonable accuracy, and the coast of Brazil is also easily recognizable. Various Atlantic islands including the Azores and Canary Islands are depicted, as is the mythical island of Antillia. The map is noteworthy for its depiction of a southern landmass that some controversially claim is evidence for early awareness of the existence of Antarctica

What fascinate me most are the marginal notes on the accounts of the pioneer seamen who have taken part in the discovery of the places shown on the map.

These coasts are named the shores of Antilia. They were discovered in the year 896 of the Arab calendar.

There are many difficulties in the map of South America, including duplication of rivers, and the continent’s southern end allegedly merging with an ice-free Antarctica. Close examination of the coastline supports the alternative theory that the “extra” landmass is simply the South American coast, probably explored in secret by Portuguese navigators, and bent round to fit the parchment. There are features resembling the basins at the mouth of the Strait of Magellan, and the Falkland Islands;also the annotations on the map itself, stating that this region is hot and inhabited by large snakes do not fit with the likely climate and fauna in Antarctica in the 1500s. Similarly the map states that “spring comes early” to the islands off the coast, which is true of the Falkland Islands but not of any islands close to the Antarctic mainland.
INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

Saturday, June 5, 2010

STAMPS OF CONGRESS PARTY,


STAMPS OF CONGRESS PARTY,
INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

JAPAN,RUSSIAN,SPANISH MESSAGE TO FRIENDS


M.DAMODHAR.RAO
BlockNo30,1floor,
SanjevayyaNagarcolony,
WestMarredpally
secunderabad; AP;
PIN 500026;india
Yours friend in Numismatics
Musham
For more info see my blogs,if possible pass on this info ,forward my mail to your FRIENDS.
to know more about my research work and other details,including list of research papers see, http://musham.wordpress.com,

http://rareindianbanknotes.blogspot.com/

http://musham.wordpress.com,

postalindia.wordpress.com

http://islamicscience.vox.com/

http://historyofplayingcards.wordpress.com/

http://ancienttelugu.blogspot.com/

http://indianbanknotes.vox.com/

Father of the Youngest Stamp collector in the WORLD
Calculated velocity of light from Nannaya Maha Bharata,1012AD,Indian Epic,
Prime minister of INDIA Shri.Rajiv Gandhi released my book.

後悔される革新、inconveinence の下の 場所。

このセクションの情報のためのmusham@gmail.com で私達に連絡し

なさい 旅行の協同に Yo u に感謝しなさい

Numisphilately とa のncient 科学のあなたのs の友人
Musham Damodhar musham@gmail.com

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Место под сожаленной РЕНОВАЦИЕЙ, inconveinence.

свяжитесь мы на musham@gmail.com для информации в

этом

разделе

Возблагодарите Yo у для сотрудничества путешествия

Ваш друг с в науке Numisphilately и а ncient

musham damodhar,

################################################

Local sob o RENOVATION, inconveinence lamentado.

contatar-nos em musham@gmail.com para a informação

nesta seção Obrigado

Seu amigo em Numisphilately e na ciência antiga

musham damodhar

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

Site under RENOVATION,inconveinence regretted.

contact us at musham@gmail.com for information in this

section

Thank You

Yours friend in Numisphilately and ancient Science

musham damodhar

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

Gandhi related stamps FDC


Gandhi related stamps

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and spiritual leader of India during the Indian independence movement. He was the pioneer of satyagraha—resistance to tyranny through mass civil disobedience, firmly founded upon ahimsa or total non-violence—which led India to independence and has inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Gandhi is commonly known around the world as Mahatma Gandhi (Sanskrit:mahātmā or ‘Great Soul’, an honorific first applied to him by Rabindranath Tagore), and in India also as Bapu (Gujarati: bāpu or “Father”). He is officially honoured in India as the Father of the Nation; his birthday, 2 October, is commemorated there as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, and worldwide as the International Day of Non-Violence.
INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

NEHRU GANDHI at congress session


NEHRU GANDHI at congress session

Gandhi first employed non-violent civil disobedience while an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, during the resident Indian community’s struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he organized protests by peasants, farmers, and urban labourers concerning excessive land-tax and discrimination. After assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns to ease poverty, expand women’s rights, build religious and ethnic amity, end untouchability, and increase economic self-reliance. Above all, he aimed to achieve Swaraj or the independence of India from foreign domination. Gandhi famously led his followers in the Non-cooperation movement that protested the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km (249 mi) Dandi Salt March in 1930. Later he campaigned for the British to Quit India. Gandhi spent a number of years in jail in both South Africa and India.

As a practitioner of ahimsa, he swore to speak the truth and advocated that others do the same. Gandhi lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn he had hand spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, and also undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and social protest.
INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

AMITAB GHOSE


astrology,astronomy,vastu,musham damodhar rao,mathematics,geography,ancient science,mughal farmans,buddhism,satavahana,islamic science,culture,arts,religion,indian banknotes,playing Cards,pyretics,
INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,numisworld@gmail.com I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok.please pass on info about me and my blog OK,NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OKM.DAMODHARBlockNo30,1floor,SanjevayyaNagarcolony,WestMarredpallysecunderabad;500026 INDIA

Common Indian banknotes for Exchange


Common Indian banknotes for Exchange

MAIL TO MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM,
P C BATTACHARYA 12

P C BATTACHARYA 12
Amitabh GHOSE rare sign 16
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Varahamihira praised,ISLAMIC SCIENCE


Varahamihira praised,ISLAMIC SCIENCE

Varahamihira’s main work is the book Pañcasiddhāntikā (or Pancha-Siddhantika, “[Treatise] on the Five [Astronomical] Canons) dated ca. 575 CE gives us information about older Indian texts which are now lost. The work is a treatise on mathematical astronomy and it summarises five earlier astronomical treatises, namely the Surya Siddhanta, Romaka Siddhanta, Paulisa Siddhanta, Vasishtha Siddhanta and Paitamaha Siddhantas. It is a compendium of native Indian as well as Hellenistic astronomy (including Greek, Egyptian and Roman elements).

The 11th century Arabian scholar Alberuni also described the details of “The Five Astronomical Canons”:
the Indianshave 5 Siddhāntas:

Sūrya-Siddhānta, ie. the Siddhānta of the Sun, composed by Lāṭa,
Vasishtha-siddhānta, so called from one of the stars of the Great Bear, composed by Vishnucandra,
Pulisa-siddhānta, so called from Paulisa, the Greek, from the city of Saintra, which is supposed to be Alexandria, composed by Pulisa.
Romaka-siddhānta, so called from the Rūm, ie. the subjects of the Roman Empire, composed by Śrīsheṇa.
Brahma-siddhānta, so called from Brahman, composed by Brahmagupta, the son of Jishṇu, from the town of Bhillamāla between Multān and Anhilwāra, 16 yojanas from the latter place.
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Ancient SIND letter,


Ancient SIND letter,

ANCIENT MEDIEVAL POSTAL HISTORY consisting mostly of government dispatches,AND SPYING ON THE PEOPLE and anti government workers and that report was carried from place to place by horse born men and on foot walkers during chandragupta period as written CHANAKYA BOOK OF ARTHASHASTA FIRST INDIAN CONTITUTION AND TAX MANUAL ,horse or horse-drawn wagon in ancient Egypt and Persia. Most mail was still being transported the same way in the middle of the 19th century, when stagecoaches carried letters and packages to the West coast.

Historical references to postal systems in Egypt date from about 2000 BC. The Persian Empire under Cyrus the Great (6th century BC) used a system of mounted relay messengers. The riders would stop at regularly placed posthouses to get a fresh horse or to pass on their packets of dispatches to another messenger for the remainder of the distance.

On the other side of the world, in China, a posthouse service had been started early in the Chou Dynasty (ruled 1122-221 BC). It was used mostly to convey official documents. The far-reaching system consisted of relays of couriers who changed horses at relay posts 9 miles yojana apart. The system was enlarged under the Han Empire (202 BC-AD 220), when the Chinese came in contact with the Romans and their postal system.
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15FDC WITH DELHI PLACES


RAJGHAT FDC,places of Delhi 15 FDC for SALE

Rajghat,is the place where Mahatma Gandhi was cremated. A memorial to the father of the nation,
Set in the midst of deep green lawns, Rajghat is the place where Mahatma Gandhi was cremated. A memorial to the

father of the nation, Rajghat is a simple square platform with a black memorial stone with “Hey Ram” inscribed on it.
“Hey Ram” were the last words uttered by the Mahatma before collapsing after being shot at.
Located on the west bank of the River Yamuna, Rajghat is surrounded by a wooded area and several exotic shrubs that

give the area a serene ambience. Walk along the ornate stone pathways as you relax on your tours to the samadhi of

one of the greatest leaders, statesman and humanist ever born.

India Travel Portal arranges for you to pay your respects at Rajghat and feel an indescribable peace as you approach

the resting place of one of the greatest proponents of non-violence.
Also tour the Gandhi Memorial Museum and the Gandhi Balidan Sthal as a part of your Rajghat tours with India Travel

Portal.

Delhi Forts are the sheer reminders of the glorious era of city’s successive dynasties. Visit the colossal Red Fort

and Old Fort two major attractions of the city capital.

Monumental heritage of Delhi is well preserved in its forts, palaces, temples and mosques. Visit the magnificent

Qutub Minar that holds lot of surprises in its colossal minaret.
India Gate is constructed as a memorial and was built in the memory of 90,00 soldiers who laid down their lives

during world war I. Located at Rajpath, India Gate is 42 m high and is popular relaxation area during the summer

evenings. India Gate also act as popular pinic spot during winter. Also known as the All India War Memorial, India

Gate was designed and constructed by Lutyens. He was the who is considered the chief proclaimer in designing the New

Delhi plans.

If it were not for the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919, the Parliament House may not have been built. It’s corny

how the building most indispensable to modern Indian democracy came up as an afterthought. Earlier called the

Circular House, it was added to the layout at a later stage following the reforms which created a large Legislative

Assembly.
This edifice is the brainchild of Herbert Baker and was much criticized in comparison with Lutyens creations. An

article by Robert Byron in Architectural Review, January 1931describes it thus: “The Council Chamber has been Sir

Herbert’s unhappiest venture. Its effect from a distance has been described. It resembles a Spanish bull-ring, lying

like a mill-wheel dropped accidentally on its side.”

The Viceroy Palace remains Lutyens most significant achievement. It is befittingly the crowning glory of the British

Empire and architecture in India. Today, it is perhaps India’s best known monument after the Taj Mahal and the Qutub

Minar. Bigger than the Palace of Versailles, it cost a whopping £12,53,000 and now houses the President of India. It

is unquestionably a masterpiece of symmetry, discipline, silhouette, colour and harmony. of course, it has come in

for much criticism too but that has mostly been limited to the imperial intent behind it rather than its

architecture.
The construction of Humayun’s tomb was taken up by the grief-stricken wife of Humayun, Hamida Banu, also known as

Bega Begam in 1565. Legend has it that the design of the Taj was inspired from this tomb’s. In pure architectural

sense, this building is probably superior and much more beautiful that the stunning Taj. Sacrilege? But really, the

only thing this building lacks is the showy marble.

Humayun- The Mughal Emperor Costructed The Fort
When the second Mughal emperor Humayun decided to make a city of his own he decided on the site of the ancient city

of Indraprastha. Humayun was quite a scholar with a fine grasp on such matters and so it is certain that the site was

chosen deliberately. When his Sher Shah Suri overthrew him, he destroyed most of Dinpanah (refuge of the faithful) as

the city of Humayun was called to make way for his own Dilli Sher Shahi or Shergarh. Incidentally, Humayun was

probably the only emperor in history who built a city in Delhi and did not give it his own name – this was typical of

Humayun’s rather sophisticated and dreamy character. The Layout of The Massive Colossal

Jantar Mantar
¤ An Observatory
The Jantar Mantar was built in 1710 by Raja Jai Singh II of Jaipur (1699-1743) in Delhi. This is an observatory

consisting of mason-built astronomical instruments to chart the course of the heavens. Jai Singh, who was a very

scholarly king with a very keen interest in astronomy and astrology, had other observatories built too – in Ujjain,

Jaipur, Mathura (which no longer survives) and Varanasi.
The first among these was this one in Delhi. The yantras (instruments, which has been distorted to Jantar) are built

of brick rubble and plastered with lime. The yantras have evocative names like, samrat yantra, jai prakash, ram

yantra and niyati chakra; each of which are used to for various astronomical calculations.

Qutub Minar in Delhi
¤ Constructed As A Holy Minar
Qutub MinarThe world famous towering Qutub Minar, started in 1192 by Qutub-ud-din Aibak (1192-98), breathes down the

neck of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. There is a slight difference of opinion as to its purpose: it probably was a

tower of victory, but then again it could have been built to be a minar (tower), attached to the Quwwat-ul-Islam

mosque, for the muezzin (priest) to climb up top for a prayer.

¤ Other Belief of Its Construction

Among Delhites there are lots of other theories about the origin of the tower. Some say it was the observatory of the

great scientist Aryabhatta of ancient India, other claim that it was built by Prithvi Chauhan for his daughter to see

the Yamuna. In fact everything short of an extraterrestrial origin has been attributed to it. The presence of the

ancient non-rusting Iron Pillar within the complex further appears to add credence to the first theory. However the

tower, its entire design and architecture are undisputedly Islamic and all the other theories are just matters of

wild surmise.
Considering how shortchanged he was for time, it is doubtful that Qutub-ud-din got much further than a couple of

levels of the minar, in fact many suggest that lived to see only the first storey complete. Altamash, his successor,

completed the remaining tower.

¤ Measures Taken To Keep The Minar In Perfect Shape

It is clear that the tower was very close to the sultanate’s heart, since repeated efforts were made to keep it in

perfect shape. In its long career, the tower got hit by lightening twice – something that, of course, with its height

it was literally asking for. Once during the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, who very decently repaired the ensuing

damage. The next time was in the indefatigable builder Feroze Shah Tughlaq’s time, when the topmost storey got

damaged. Feroze Shah, who of course couldn’t well leave things alone, not only repaired the floor, but also sneaked

in another level.

The Mecca of all the lovers, without places to go and extra money to spend in Delhi, is the beautiful and serene Lodi

Garden. Its original purpose was hardly that however. It was designed over two dynasties – the Sayyids and Lodis (15

-16 th century) – to be a sort of everyone-take-one graveyard for their families.

During the British times the garden went under the moniker of Lady Willingdon Park, all that stopped with the

Independence when they reverted back to being good old Lodi garden. In 1968, the gardens were spruced and

relandscaped by JA Stein and Garrett Eckbo. There are several tombs in this area. You can climb to the top of some of

them. However the steps are very steep and dark so it’s strictly not recommended. Apart from breaking your neck, you

might end up being bitten by a snake or something
The result of this combined effort is an interesting mix in styles that is clearly discernable all over the tower.

Each of the original three storeys has different designs. The base storey has alternate angular and circular flutings

while those of the second one are round and the third one has only angular flutings. Their alignment is mercifully

similar, so giving the tower a rhythmic harmony. The pretty projecting balconies have a very interesting pattern,

with icicle-shaped pendentive (an intricate design in which triangular pieces of vaulting spring from the corners of

a rectangular area and support a rounded or polygonal dome) type of brackets. The attractiveness of the balconies is

heightened by the bands of sonorous inscriptions. The diameter (at base) of the Qutub Minar is 14.32m and about 2.75m

at the top.

¤ The Attraction of Crownig Cupola

The tower had a crowning cupola on the top at one time, however this was struck down sometime in the early 19th

century, an earthquake felled it. This was replced by a well meaning English engineer Major Smith. However it must

have looked quite an eyesore for when Lord Hardinge was Governor-general of British India, he had it removed. You can

see it now on the spruce lawns of the Qutub complex. Come to think of it, it must have been eyesore – it’s called

Smith’s folly.
RAJGHAT places of Delhi FDC sale

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POST ON ROCKS,open letter of ASOKA


Spread of Buddhism by messages on ROCK,

The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BC. These inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan, Nepal and India, and represent the first tangible evidence of Buddhism. The edicts describe in detail the first wide expansion of Buddhism through the sponsorship of one of the most powerful kings of Indian history. According to the edicts, the extent of Buddhist proselytism during this period reached as far as the Mediterranean, and many Buddhist monuments were created.

These inscriptions proclaim Ashoka’s beliefs in the Buddhist concept of dharma and his efforts to develop the dharma throughout his kingdom. Although Buddhism and the Buddha are mentioned, the edicts focus on social and moral precepts rather than religious practices or the philosophical dimension of Buddhism.

In these inscriptions, Ashoka refers to himself as “Beloved of the Gods” and “King Priya-darshi.” The identification of King Priya-darshi with Ashoka was confirmed by an inscription discovered in 1915. The inscriptions found in the eastern part of India were written in the Magadhi language, using the Brahmi script. In the western part of India, the language used is closer to Sanskrit, using the Kharoshthi script, one extract of Edict 13 in the Greek language, and one bilingual edict written in Greek and Aramaic.These edicts were decodified by British archeologist and historian James Prinsep.

The inscriptions revolve around a few repetitive themes: Ashoka’s conversion to Buddhism, the description of his efforts to spread Buddhism, his moral and religious precepts, and his social and animal welfare program.
In order to propagate the Buddhist faith, Ashoka explains he sent emissaries to the Hellenistic kings as far as the Mediterranean, and to the peoples throughout India, claiming they were all converted to the Dharma as a result. He names the Greek rulers of the time, inheritors of the conquest of Alexander the Great, from Bactria to as far as Greece and North Africa, displaying an amazingly clear grasp of the political situation at the time.
Spread of religion by messages on ROCK,

Spread of religion by messages on ROCK,

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SUMERIAN,Akkadian Postal history


SUMERIAN,Akkadian Postal history

The Akkadian Empire was an empire centered in the city of Akkad Biblical Accad in central Mesopotamia present day Iraq.The city of Akkad was situated on the west bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (in Iraq, about 50 km (31 mi) southwest of the center of Baghdad). Despite an extensive search, the precise site has never been found. It reached the height of its power between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the conquests of king Sargon of Akkad.
Because of the policies of the Akkadian Empire toward linguistic assimilation, Akkad also gave its name to the predominant Semitic dialect: the Akkadian language, reflecting use of akkadû (“in the language of Akkad”) in the Old Babylonian period to denote the Semitic version of a Sumerian text.
The form Agade appears in Sumerian, for example in the Sumerian King List; the later Assyro-Babylonian form Akkadû belonging to Akkad It is possible that the Sumerian name, despite its unetymological spelling A.GA.DÈ, is from AGA.DÈ, meaning “Crown of Fire” in allusion to Ishtar, “the brilliant goddess”, whose cult was observed from very early times in Agade. Centuries later, the neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus mentioned in his archaeological records[4] that Ishtar’s worship in Agade was later superseded by that of the goddess Anunit, whose shrine was at Sippar—suggesting proximity of Sippar and Agade.Despite numerous searches, the city has never been found. One theory holds that Agade was situated opposite Sippar on the left bank of the Euphrates, and was perhaps the oldest part of the city of Sippar. Another theory is that the ruins of Akkad are to be found beneath modern Baghdad. Reputedly it was destroyed by invading Gutians with the fall of the Akkadian Empire.

The first known mention of the city of Akkad is in an inscription of Enshakushanna of Uruk, where he claims to have defeated Agade—indicating that it was in existence well before the days of Sargon of Akkad, who the Sumerian kinglist claims to have built it.Akkad is mentioned once in the Tanakh—Book of Genesis 10:10: And the beginning of his Nimrod’s kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. The Greek (LXX) spelling in this passage is Archad.
SUMERIAN,Akkadian Postal history cover letter

SUMERIAN,Akkadian Postal history cover letter

astrology,astronomy,vastu,musham damodhar rao,mathematics,geography,ancient science,mughal farmans,buddhism,satavahana,islamic science,culture,arts,religion,indian banknotes,playing Cards,pyretics,
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Banknote on Weaving in khemr nation



Banknote on Weaving in khemr nation

A loom is a machine or device for weaving thread or yarn into textiles. Looms can range from very small hand-held frames, to large free-standing hand looms, to huge automatic mechanical devices. The ancient Egyptians and Chinese used looms as early as 4000 BC.
The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same.
Weaving is the textile art in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads, called the warp and the filling or weft (older woof), are interlaced with each other to form a fabric or cloth. The warp threads run lengthways of the piece of cloth, and the weft runs across from side to side.
Warp and weft in plain weaving.
Cloth is woven on a loom, a device for holding the warp threads in place while the filling threads are woven through them. Weft is an old English word meaning “that which is woven”.
The manner in which the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is known as the weave. The three basic weaves are plain weave, satin weave, and twill, and the majority of woven products are created with one of these weaves.Woven cloth can be plain (in one color or a simple pattern), or it can be woven in decorative or artistic designs, including tapestries. Fabric in which the warp and/or weft is tie-dyed before weaving is called ikat.
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Khadi Commision history,banknotes


Khadi Commision history,banknotes

IN Nagpur session (1920) that the Indian National Congress decided to encourage “Khadi”. The first Khadi Production Centre was established at Katiawad, Gujarat, Mahatma Gandhi used to refer to Khadi as “The delilivery of freedom”.

In fact, Khadi was introduced in 1920 as a political weapon and as the best instrument for giving concrete expression to the Swadeshi Spirit to boycott foreign goods. Khadi rendered an opportunity to every man, woman and child to cultivate self-discipline and self-sacrifice as a part of the non-cooperation movement.

Development of All India Board under the Indian National Congress by Gandhiji.

1923 Given below is a chronology of events that contributed to the development of Khadi in India over time in 1923

1925 Setting up of All India Spinners Association (AISA) / Akhil Bharat Charkha Sangh,

1935 All India Village Industries Association (AIVIA) was formed.

1946 Govt. of Madras sought the advice of Gandhiji and set up a Department for Khadi.

1948 Govt. of India recognized the role of Rural Cottage Industries in the Industrial Policy Resolution, 1948. Constituent Assembly included Cottage Industries in Rural Areas among the directive Principles of the Constitution in Article 43.

These ideas were elaborated in the First five-year Plan, which laid down the Policy framework for setting up of a body for Khadi and Village Industries. Central Govt. also recommended for setting up of a Board.

1953 In accordance with these recommendations, Govt. of India set up All India Khadi & Village Industries Board in January, 1953. (AIKVIB)

1955 It was decided that a statutory body should replace the Board.

1956 Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act 1956 was passed.

1957 Khadi and Village Industries Commission came into being.

The post independence period saw the Government of India and the planning commission assuring the responsibility of fitting Khadi and Village Industries within the framework of five-year plans

Here are photos pf some interesting banknotes issued by the THE VILLAGE AND GRAMAUDYOG commision or other name with a variatin
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Process of weaving now


Process of weaving now

WEAVING. The process of weaving consists in interlacing, at right angles, two or more series of flexible materials, of which the longitudinal are called warp and the transverse weft. Weaving, therefore, only embraces one section of the textile industry, for felted, plaited, netted, hosiery and lace fabrics lie outside this definition. Felting consists in bringing masses of loose fibres, such as wool and hair, under the combined influences of heat, moisture and friction, when they become firmly inter – locked in every direction. Plaited fabrics have only one series of threads interlaced, and those at other than right angles. In nets all threads are held in their appointed places by knots, which are tied wherever one thread intersects another. Hosiery fabrics, whether made from one or many threads, are held together by intersecting a series of loops; while lace fabrics are formed by passing one set of threads between and round small groups of a second set of threads, instead of moving them from side to side. Notwithstanding the foregoing limitations, woven fabrics are varied in texture and have an enormous range of application. The demands made by prehistoric man for fabrics designed for clothing and shelter were few and simple, and these were fashioned by interlacing strips of fibrous material and grasses, which in their natural condition were long enough for the purpose in hand. But, as he passed from a state of savagery into a civilized being, his needs developed with his culture, and those needs are still extending. It no longer suffices to minister to individual necessities; luxury, commerce and numerous industries must also be considered.

The invention of spinning gave a great impetus to the introduction of varied effects previously; the use of multicoloured threads provided ornament for simple structures, but the demand for variety extended far beyond the limits of colour, and different materials were employed either separately or conjointly, together with different schemes of interlacing. Eventually the weaver was called upon to furnish articles possessing lustre, softness and delicacy; or those that combine strength and durability with diverse colourings, with a snowy whiteness, or with elaborate ornamentation. In cold countries a demand arose for warm clothing, and in hot ones for cooler materials; while commerce and industry have requisitioned fabrics that vary from normal characteristics to those that exceed an inch in thickness. In order to meet these and other requirements the world has been searched for suitable raw materials. From the animal kingdom, wool, hair, fur, feathers, silk and the pinna fibre have long been procured. From the vegetable kingdom, cotton, flax, hemp, jute, ramie and a host of other less known but almost equally valuable materials are derived. Amongst minerals there are gold, silver, copper, brass, iron, glass and asbestos. In addition, strips of paper, or skin, in the plain, gilt, silvered and painted con – ditions are available as well as artificial fibres. All of the fore – going may be used alone or in combination.
The process of weaving
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SadanaShurulu greatness of PADMASHALI’s


SadanaShurulu greatness of PADMASHALI’s

Saadhana Soorulu Folk Arts

1]Saadhana Soorulu are those who, with a lot of devotion and concentration, learn magic or Indrajala and give performances in the art of magic. They are known to produce miracles and shock their audiences.
They belong to the Padmashali community are dependent on the weavers in this community with whose permission they give performances. The team performing this art form consists of six men. They go around villages throughout the year and give magic performances. They stay for five or six days in a village.

Performances are given in open places where there is scope for a good gathering. They are arranged during daytime only. No make-up is necessary for this performance. A few of these performances are detailed below. Four poles are fixed in the place of the performance. A man is tied to a pole with rope and completely covered with cloth.

When the cover is removed, the man tied to one pole is made to appear at another pole. Another item in the performance is what is known as Agnisthambhana. This is done by fixing a stout needle on the head of a man. A shallow vessel is placed on the other end of’ the needle with a flame under the vessel. Rotis are baked on the vessel after this. Another magic performance is known as Jalasthambhana. In this they show a person drinking water with his mouth and letting the water out through his ears and nose.

Yet another is Vayusthambhana. This is done by making ones body light, controlling breathing and then weighing the body on a light scale. By doing such magical acts, Saadhana Soorulu continue their performance for about three hours. They have Katladi (right for collection) with the Padmashali community. Performance is their main source of livelihood.
Sadahanasuroolu are depicted at bottom of 500 rial note on Cambodian[next to Vietnam] currency cut bottom panel to get good view
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BALTIC BANK NOTES ZAMAITIJA


BALTIC BANK NOTES ZAMAITIJA
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2 LITA BANK NOTE FOR EXCHANGE TOO!


2 LITA BANK NOTE FOR EXCHANGE TOO!
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RARE UNKNOWN NATION BANK FROM BALTICS


RARE UNKNOWN NATION BANK FROM BALTICS
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SHIVA KESHAVA COIN


SHIVA KESHAVA COIN

Hinduism is a combination of secular and sacred beliefs, rituals, daily practices and traditions that has evolved over the course of over two thousand years and embodies complex symbolism combining the natural world with philosophy. Hindu temples began as simple shrines housing a deity and by the time of the Hoysalas had evolved into well articulated edifices in which worshippers sought transcendence of the daily world. Hoysala temples were not limited to any specific organised tradition of Hinduism and encouraged pilgrims of different Hindu devotional movements. The Hoysalas usually dedicated their temples to Lord Shiva or to Lord Vishnu (two of the major Hindu gods), but they occasionally chose a different deity. Worshippers of Shiva are called Shaivas or Lingayats and worshippers of Vishnu are called Vaishnavas. While King Vishnuvardhana and his descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Vishnu.[3] Most of these temples have secular features with broad themes depicted in their sculptures. This can be seen in the famous Chennakesava Temple at Belur dedicated to Vishnu and in the Hoysaleswara temple at Halebidu dedicated to Shiva. The Kesava temple at Somanathapura is different in that its ornamentation is strictly Vaishnavan. Generally Vaishnava temples are dedicated to Keshava (or to Chennakeshava, meaning “Beautiful Vishnu”) while a small number are dedicated to Lakshminarayana and Lakshminarasimha (Narayana and Narasimha both being avatars, or physical manifestations, of Vishnu) with Lakshmi, consort of Vishnu, seated at his feet. Temples dedicated to Vishnu are always named after the deity. The Shaiva temples have a Shiva linga, symbol of fertility and the universal symbol of Shiva, in the shrine. The names of Shiva temples can end with the suffix eshwara meaning “Lord of”. The name “Hoysaleswara”, for instance, means “Lord of Hoysala”. The temple can also be named after the devotee who commissioned the construction of the temple, an example being the Bucesvara temple at Koravangala, named after the devotee Buci.[5] The most striking sculptural decorations are the horizontal rows of exquisitely detailed, intricately carved images of gods, goddesses and their attendants on the outer temple wall panels. The Doddagaddavalli Lakshmi Devi (“Goddess of Wealth”) Temple is an exception as it is dedicated to neither Vishnu nor Shiva. The defeat of the Jain Western Ganga Dynasty (of present-day south Karnataka) by the Cholas in the early 11th century and the rising numbers of followers of Vaishnava Hinduism and Virashaivism in the 12th century was mirrored by a decreased interest in Jainism.However, two notable locations of Jain worship in the Hoysala territory were Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. The Hoysalas built Jain temples to satisfy the needs of its Jain population, a few of which have survived in Halebidu containing icons of Jain tirthankaras. They constructed stepped wells called Pushkarni or Kalyani, the ornate tank at Hulikere being an example. The tank has twelve minor shrines containing Hindu deities. contd part II for more info mail to musham3@gmail.com
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Telugu Language Origion story,from 200 AD


Telugu is a Dravidian language (South-Central Dravidian languages) mostly spoken in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, where it is the official language. Including non-native speakers it is the most spoken Dravidian language,[1] the second most spoken language in India after Hindi, and the third most spoken language in the Indian sub-continent after Hindi and Bengali. It is one of the twenty-two official languages of the Republic of India. It is widely spoken in Andhra Pradesh and also spoken in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa, and Pondicherry, with major populations in Bengaluru and Chennai, though the dialects spoken in these places vary greatly from the standard version of the language,Telugu is one of the fifteen most widely spoken languages in the world.
Telugu is second largest spoken language after hindi.
Telugu originated from the proto-Dravidian language, belonging to the south-central family. Though Telugu belongs to the South-central Dravidian language subfamily, whose members originated from the Proto-Dravidian spoken in the central part of the Deccan plateau it is a highly sanskritized language. Other languages of the South-Central group include the Gondi, Konda, Kui and Kuvi languages. Inscriptions containing Telugu words dated back to 400 BCE were discovered in Bhattiprolu in Guntur district. English translation of one inscription reads: “Gift of the slab by venerable Midikilayakha

The etymology of Telugu is not known for certain. It is explained as being derived from trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, “the country of the three lingas”. According to a Hindu legend, Trilinga Desa is the land in between three Shiva temples namely Kalahasthi, Srisailam and Draksharamam. Trilinga Desa forms the traditional boundaries of the Telugu region. Other forms of the word, such as Telunga, Telinga, Telangana and Tenunga were also seen. It is also said that Trilinga, in the form “Triliggon” occurs in Ptolemy as the name of a locality to the east of the Ganga river. Other scholars compare Trilinga with other local names mentioned by Pliny, such as Bolingae, Maccocalingae, and Modogalingam. The latter name is given as that of an island in the Ganges. A.D. Campbell, in the introduction to his Telugu grammar, suggested that Modogalingam may be explained as a Telugu translation of Trilingam, and compared the first part of the word modoga, with mUDuga, a poetical form for Telugu mUDu, three. Bishop Caldwell, on the other hand, explained Modogalingam as representing a Telugu mUDugalingam, the three Kalingas, a local name which occurs in Sanskrit inscriptions and one of the Puranas. Kalinga occurs in the Ashoka Inscriptions, and in the form Kling, it has become, in the Malay country, the common word for the people of Continental India.

the word is derived from talaing, who were chiefs who conquered the Andhra region. M.R. Shastri is of the opinion that it is from telunga, an amalgamation of the Gondi words telu, meaning “white”, and the pluralization -unga, probably referring to white or fair-skinned people. the word could be derived from tenungu meaning “people of the South”.

The ancient name for telugu land seems to be telinga/telanga desa. It seems probable that the base of this word is teli, and that -nga, or gu is the common Dravidian formative element. A base teli occurs in Telugu teli, bright; teliyuTa, to perceive, etc. However, this etymology is contested. Telugu pandits commonly state Tenugu to be the proper form of the word, and explain this as the ‘mellifluous language’ from tene or honey. However, this claim does not appear to be supported by scholarly opinion. The word Kalinga might be derived from the same base as Telugu kaluguTa, to live to exist, and would then simply mean ‘human
Telugu is the Second largest spoken language in the country after Hindi.

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Ancient Indian Scriptures,increase memory power,memory power,graying of hair,Ayurvedic literature,how to sleep,keep mind cool,remove tensions,improve



Ancient Indian Scriptures,increase memory power,memory power,graying of hair,Ayurvedic literature,how to sleep,keep mind cool,remove tensions,improve eyesight,Brahmi laeaves,brain cells,

Important Yogic Remedies from Ancient Indian Scriptures:

1. 29th chapter of Agnipuran contains a medicine, which grants longevity to a person. According to the text, consuming 240 mg to 500 mg of Brahmi powder with milk every morning is very beneficial. It also increases the memory power.

2. Ayurvedic scriptures like Charaka and Sushruta say that consuming 3 gm of green vegetable soup (made form Brahmi) increases the memory power. Brahmi leaves are tasty just like the tamarind leaves.

3. Bhav Prakash includes the importance of Shankhpushpi for good memory. Consuming 3 to 6 gm of Shankhpushpi powder with milk is extremely beneficial for increasing memory. It also plays an important role in improving the functioning of the brain and its overall development.

4 .Beshajya Ratnavali is a famous Ayurvedic literature. According to this book, regular consumption of Brahmi, Shankhpushpi, almond, etc. strengthen the brain cells and provide coolness to the brain. They are helpful in improving memory power and curing nervous related problems.

5. An Ayurvedic literature called Chikitsa Chandrodaya mentions the importance of Brahmi in the form of a chemical. Regular consumption of Brahmi improves the capacity to think and understand. It also includes a simple combination to improve memory power. It says that almond and sugar candy ‘Halava’ (sweet dish) is very healthy to strengthen the brain cells and improve the memory power.

6. Add one gram of black pepper in ten grams of honey and consume this mixture twice a day. This combination is very beneficial for increasing the memory power, improves eyesight and stops premature graying of hair.

7. A Greek literature ‘Ijajul Gruba’ mentions that consuming fiber in right quantity is extremely beneficial. Almond and pomegranate squash are very useful sources of fiber food. Whichever squash suits the body, should be taken regularly in the summer season. This book has cautioned that the best way to improve the memory power is to keep the mind cold and the feet warm.

8. Ayurvedic books have paid utmost attention to massage. Massaging the feet and head with rapeseed oil is beneficial in improving the memory power. Regular massage of the head increases the blood flow and also improves the memory power. It also relieves headache and improves the eyesight.

9. A simple tip can improve your memory power many times. When you go to bed, lie down straight, close your eyes and memorize all the activities, which you did throughout the day from morning to evening. Practice this tip everyday and you will notice that the memory power has improved to a great extent.

10. People who sleep with their head towards the East or South direction have very good memory power.

11. According to Guru Pushya Yog one should always keep Apamarg herb, this increases the memory power.
Ancient Indian Scriptures,increas memory power,memory power,graying of hair,Ayurvedic literature,how to sleep,keep mind cool,remove tensions,improve eyesight,Brahmi laeaves,brain cells,

Ancient Indian Scriptures,increas memory power,memory power,graying of hair,Ayurvedic literature,how to sleep,keep mind cool,remove tensions,improve eyesight,Brahmi laeaves,brain cells,


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3500years old Cover and letter made of CLAY from Sumeria


3500years old Cover and letter made of CLAY from Sumeria

Cover and letter on clay tablet with crunieform inscription of Akkadians,found in Sumerian region is 3500years old.Even in this time court Judgments were given in sealed cover,the Difference is Clay cover and document are not of paper but of CLAY baked ofter writing and was signed by TWO JUDGES BENCH,the the petitioners are nine village heads,with seals of Judges,an Museum collection[OIM]
This is the First example of writing,postal system,Judiciary,etc

The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. Created by the Sumerian’s from ca. 3000 BC, cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. Over time, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract.
The cuneiform writing system originated perhaps around 2800 BC in Sumer; its latest surviving use is dated to 75 AD.
The cuneiform script underwent considerable changes over a period of more than two millennia.
Cuneiforms were written on clay tablets, on which symbols were drawn with a blunt reed called a stylus. The impressions left by the stylus were wedge shaped, thus giving rise to the name cuneiform .
The Sumerian script was adapted for the writing of the Akkadian, Elamite, Hittite languages, and it inspired the Old Persian and Ugaritic national alphabets.
The characters consist of arrangements of wedgelike strokes generally impressed with a stylus on wet clay tablets, which were then dried or baked. The history of the script is strikingly parallel to that of the Egyptian hieroglyphic The normal Babylonian and Assyrian writing used a large number (300–600) of arbitrary cuneiform symbols for words and syllables; some had been originally pictographic. There was an alphabetic system, too, making it possible to spell a word out, but because of the adaptation from Sumerian, a different language, there were many ambiguities. A single symbol could be used to represent a concept, an object, a simple sound or syllable, or to indicate the category of words requiring additional definition. Cuneiform writing was used outside Mesopotamia also, notably in Elam and by the Hittites. There are many undeciphered cuneiform inscriptions, apparently representing several different languages. Cuneiform writing declined in use after the Persian conquest of Babylonia (539 B.C.), and after a brief renaissance (3d–1st cent. B.C.) ceased to be used in Mesopotamia.


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Thursday, June 3, 2010

$3.99 application in the iPad.

Two Indian students develop Apple's top paid app
Bonindia news bureau

Bangalore: Two Indian born Stanford graduate students have created a $3.99 application in the iPad. It is the top paid app in the entire iPad section of the App Store.The Pulse Reader app in the iPad was developed by Akshay Kothari (23) and Ankit Gupta (22) at the Institute of Design of Stanford University.

Kothari said the project was inspired by 'a personal frustration at the whole news reading experience' on mobile devices. The stylish and easy to use news aggregator service was developed in the Launch Pad class, where the budding entrepreneurs are given an opportunity to develop and introduce a product in just ten weeks.

Pulse is a clean and visual news aggregator and the reader takes up to 20 news sources that can be followed and a visual mosaic of the news can be created. The article can be tapped and a clean rendered view of the news story can be presented. The app allows users to see text-only versions of articles, which are basically cleaned-up versions of a news site's RSS feeds, or to see the full articles as they are presented on the Web. It also lets sharing articles through Twitter and Facebook by passing the individual sharing tools presented by each news site.

News organizations are yet to get accustomed to iPad strategies but are quite hopeful about the success of pulse. "You absolutely do not have to give away something great for free," said Michael Dearing, a former eBay executive who is a teacher of the Launch Pad class. "If you build something great, people will pay you for it," added Dearing.

Nearly 15,000 people have downloaded this app and it has generated more than $40,000 in revenue, taking into account Apple's 30 percent cut. Akshay and Ankit have created a company, Alphonso Labs, and are now working on versions of the app for other devices, as well as talking to potential investors.


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rivers flow west to east.

Telangana is a region of Andhra Pradesh state in India. The name means "land of Telugu people". It is comprised of the Telugu speaking parts of the erstwhile princely state of Hyderabad. The region lies on the Deccan plateau to the west of the Eastern Ghats range, and includes the northwestern interior districts of Warangal, Adilabad, Khammam, Mahabubnagar, Nalgonda, Rangareddy, Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Medak, and the state capital, Hyderabad.

The Krishna and Godavari rivers flow through the region from west to east.

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HISTORY OF TELANGANA

HISTORY OF TELANGANA
The Telangana region is believed to have been mentioned in the Mahabharata as the Telinga Kingdom which said to be inhabited by the tribe known as Telavana and said to have fought on the Pandava side in the great war of Mahabharata. It is also evident from the fact that there is Pandavula Guhalu in Warangal district (where the Pandavas spent their life in exile (Lakkha Gruham).

And, in Treta yuga, it is believed that Rama, Sita and Lakshmana, spent their life in exile at Parnashala on the banks of Godavari river which is about 25 km from Bhadrachalam in Khammam District which falls in the Telangana region.

Telangana region has been heartland for many great dynasties like Sathavahanas, Kakatiyas. Kotilingala in Karimnagar was the first capital of the Sathavahanas before Dharanikota. Excavations at Kotilingala revealed coinage of Simukha, a Satavahana emperor.

The region experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiyas, a great Telugu dynasty that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 CE to 1323. Ganapatideva was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Cholas in the year 1210 who accepted his suzerainty. He established order in his vast dominion that stretched from the Godavari delta and Anakapalle in the east to Raichur (in modern day Karnataka) in the west and from Karimnagar & Bastar (in modern day Chattisgarh) in the north to Srisailam & Tripurantakam, near Ongole in the south. It was also during his reign that the Golkonda fort was first constructed by the Kakatiyas.

Telangana, then came under Muslim rule in 14th century for the first time by Delhi Sultanate followed by Bahmanis, Qutb Shahis and Mughals. As the Mughal Empire began to disintegrate in the early 18th century, the Muslim Asafjahi dynasty established a separate state known as Hyderabad. Later Hyderabad entered into a treaty of subsidiary alliance with the British Empire, and was the largest and most populous princely state in India. Telangana was never under direct British rule, unlike Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh, which were part of British India's Madras Presidency.

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KOHINOOR diamond


KOHINOOR diamond

The origin of the diamond is unclear, although rumors abound. According to some sources, the Koh-i-noor was originally found more than 5000 years ago, and is mentioned in ancient Sanskrit writings under the name Syamantaka.[original research?] According to some Hindu mythological accounts, Krishna obtained the diamond from Jambavantha, whose daughter Jambavati later married Krishna. The legend says that the diamond was from the Sun God to Satrajith (father of Satyabhama) which produces 1000 kg of gold daily. Krishna got the blame of stealing the diamond from Satrajith's brother who is killed by a lion which in turn was killed by Jambavantha. Satrajith had alleged that "Krishna probably killed my brother, who went to the forest wearing the jewel on his neck." Krishna, to restore his reputation, fought a fierce battle with Jambavan and gave the stone back to Satrajith. Now being ashamed with himself Satrajith offered his daughter's hand to Krishna along with the stone. Krishna accepted his daughter Satyabhama's hand but refused to take the Syamantaka.


Historical evidence suggests that the Kohinoor originated in the Guntur region of Kakatiya kingdom, in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, one of the world's earliest diamond producing regions. This region was the only known source for diamonds until 1730 when diamonds were discovered in Brazil. The term "Golconda" diamond has come to define diamonds of the finest white color, clarity and transparency. They are very rare and highly sought after.

The diamond was mined in the Kollur mines near the village Paritala in the present day Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh.The diamond became the property of Kakatiya kings. The Khilji dynasty at Delhi ended in 1320 A.D. and Ghiyas ud din Tughluq Shah I ascended the Delhi throne. Tughlaq sent his commander Ulugh Khan in 1323 to defeat the Kakatiya king Prataparudra. Ulugh Khan’s raid was repulsed but he returned in a month with a larger and determined army. The unprepared army of Kakatiya was defeated. The loot, plunder and destruction of Orugallu (present day Warangal), the capital of Kakatiya Kingdom, continued for months. Loads of gold, diamonds, pearls and ivory were carried away to Delhi on elephants, horses and camels. The Koh-i-noor diamond was part of the bounty. From then onwards, the stone passed through the hands of successive rulers of the Delhi sultanate, finally passing to Babur, the first Mughal emperor, in 1526.

The curse of the Koh-i-Noor

It is believed that the Koh-i-Noor carries with it a curse and only when in the possession of a woman will the curse not work. All the men who owned it have either lost their throne or had other misfortunes befall them. The British are wary of this curse and so far, only Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth have adorned the gem as sovereigns. Since Queen Victoria the diamond has always gone to the wife of the male heir to the throne.

The possibility of a curse pertaining to ownership of the diamond dates back to a Hindu text relating to the first authenticated appearance of the diamond in 1306: "He who owns this diamond will own the world, but will also know all its misfortunes. Only God, or a woman, can wear it with impunity."

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