Wednesday, August 26, 2009

Imperial bank of India

RESERVE BANK OF INDIA is an off shoot off ,The Imperial Bank of India was the oldest and the largest commercial bank of the Indian subcontinent, and was subsequently transformed into State Bank of India in 1955.
The Imperial Bank of India came into existence on 27 January 1921 when the three Presidency Banks of colonial India, were reorganized and amalgamated to form a single banking entity. The three Presidency banks were the Bank of Bengal, established on 2 June 1806, the Bank of Bombay ,incorporated on 15 April 1840, and the Bank of Madras,incorporated on 1 July 1843.Imperial Bank of India performed all the normal functions which a commercial bank was expected to perform. In the absence of any central banking institution in India until 1935, the Imperial Bank of India also performed a number of functions which are normally carried out by a central bank.

In 1924, at Apollo Street, currently called Mumbai Samachar Marg, Mumbai, a magnificent stone structure with fretted windows, was constructed to house a branch of the Imperial Bank of India.
In 1933, Sir Badridas Goenka, an important public figure and business tycoon of his time, and a prominent member of Marwari community of Calcutta, became the first Indian to be appointed as the Chairman of the Imperial Bank of India.

The Reserve Bank of India, which is the central banking organization of India, in the year 1955, acquired a controlling interest in the Imperial Bank of India and the Imperial Bank of India was christened on 30 April 1955 as the State Bank of India, and this transformation from the Imperial Bank of India to the State Bank of India was given legal recognition in terms an Act of the Parliament of India, which came into force from 1 July 1955. The day on which the Imperial Bank of India became the State Bank of India, IBI had 480 branches, sub-offices, and three local head offices; and had under its control and command slightly more than a quarter of the resources of the Indian banking industry. The branch network of State Bank of India has since grown to 9093 branches as on 31 March 2004. In 2007 Reserve Bank of India transferred its stake in State Bank of India to Government of India.

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

Bank notes of BRITISH-INDIA





INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

Thursday, August 20, 2009

SHIVA KESAVA ON COIN


Hinduism is a combination of secular and sacred beliefs, rituals, daily practices and traditions that has

evolved over the course of over two thousand years and embodies complex symbolism combining the natural world

with philosophy. Hindu temples began as simple shrines housing a deity and by the time of the Hoysalas had

evolved into well articulated edifices in which worshippers sought transcendence of the daily world. Hoysala

temples were not limited to any specific organised tradition of Hinduism and encouraged pilgrims of different

Hindu devotional movements. The Hoysalas usually dedicated their temples to Lord Shiva or to Lord Vishnu (two

of the major Hindu gods), but they occasionally chose a different deity. Worshippers of Shiva are called

Shaivas or Lingayats and worshippers of Vishnu are called Vaishnavas. While King Vishnuvardhana and his

descendants were Vaishnava by faith, records show that the Hoysalas maintained religious harmony by building as

many temples dedicated to Shiva as they did to Vishnu.[3] Most of these temples have secular features with

broad themes depicted in their sculptures. This can be seen in the famous Chennakesava Temple at Belur

dedicated to Vishnu and in the Hoysaleswara temple at Halebidu dedicated to Shiva. The Kesava temple at

Somanathapura is different in that its ornamentation is strictly Vaishnavan. Generally Vaishnava temples are

dedicated to Keshava (or to Chennakeshava, meaning "Beautiful Vishnu") while a small number are dedicated to

Lakshminarayana and Lakshminarasimha (Narayana and Narasimha both being avatars, or physical manifestations, of

Vishnu) with Lakshmi, consort of Vishnu, seated at his feet. Temples dedicated to Vishnu are always named after

the deity. The Shaiva temples have a Shiva linga, symbol of fertility and the universal symbol of Shiva, in the

shrine. The names of Shiva temples can end with the suffix eshwara meaning "Lord of". The name "Hoysaleswara",

for instance, means "Lord of Hoysala". The temple can also be named after the devotee who commissioned the

construction of the temple, an example being the Bucesvara temple at Koravangala, named after the devotee

Buci.[5] The most striking sculptural decorations are the horizontal rows of exquisitely detailed, intricately

carved images of gods, goddesses and their attendants on the outer temple wall panels. The Doddagaddavalli

Lakshmi Devi ("Goddess of Wealth") Temple is an exception as it is dedicated to neither Vishnu nor Shiva. The

defeat of the Jain Western Ganga Dynasty (of present-day south Karnataka) by the Cholas in the early 11th

century and the rising numbers of followers of Vaishnava Hinduism and Virashaivism in the 12th century was

mirrored by a decreased interest in Jainism.However, two notable locations of Jain worship in the Hoysala

territory were Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. The Hoysalas built Jain temples to satisfy the needs of its

Jain population, a few of which have survived in Halebidu containing icons of Jain tirthankaras. They

constructed stepped wells called Pushkarni or Kalyani, the ornate tank at Hulikere being an example. The tank

has twelve minor shrines containing Hindu deities. contd part II for more info mail to musham3@gmail.com
HAVE A LOOK AT OTHER BLOG http://musham.wordpress.com,

MushamWORLD of AncientScience,Stamps,AcientCoins,PostalHistory,AncientTelugu,
Buddhist,Islamic,hindu,ancientscience,speed of

light,gods,Epigraphy,Pyretics,Astronomy,Vastu,Jyotish,Geography,Metallurgy,Vimanas

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

Wednesday, August 19, 2009

Dhrangadhra banknote



HH Maharana Maharaja Shri Raj MAYURDHWAJSINHJI MEGHRAJJI III GHANSHYAMSINHJI Sahib (1942- Adjitniwas Palace, Dhrangadhra - 363310, Gujarat, India,born 6rd March 1923, member of the Standing Committee of the Chamber of Princes from 1945 to 1947, and in 1945 was the prime mover of the Saurashtra States Confederation Scheme which he carried in the meeting of the States-General in 1946. On 10 May 1947 he became the first Ruler in Western India to join the Constituent Assembly of India, to which he was nominated in 1948. On the establishment of the United State of Kathiawar (Saurashtra) in 1948, he was installed as Uprajpramukh, and he served as Acting Rajpramukh during the absences of the Rajpramukh. In 1952 he resigned as Uprajpramukh and entered Christ Church, Oxford, where he read philosophy for six years. He also studied at the Ruskin School of Drawing. After returning to India from Oxford, Meghrâjjî was President of the Jodhpur Regency Council from 1965 to 1968. In 1967 he was elected to the Gujarat Legislative Assembly from the Dhragadhra Constituency. He resigned the same year on his election to the Fourth Lok Sabha as MP for Jhalava, which seat he held until 1970. He was the main Opposition speaker against allowing Parliament the power to abridge fundamental Constitutional rights, and introduced his own Bill for allowing a plebiscite when the question of abridgement arose. From 1967 to 1971 he was the Intendant General of the Concord of Princes which was set up to safeguard the rights and privileges of the Princes granted under the Indian Constitution, he led the opposition to the abrogation of the Rulers’ covenanted rights and Constitutional guarantees. He married 3rd March 1943 at Jodhpur, HH Maharani Shri Brijraj Kumari Sahiba of Jodhpur, and has issue.
Yuvraj Maharajkumar Shri Sodhsalji Mayurdhwajsinhji Jhala [Shatrujit Dev Sahib], born 22nd March 1944, Tikaraj Sahib [cr.1961], married 1stly, 6th May 1970, Yuvrani Saviti Devi [née Shahnoor Begum] of Palanpur, born 16th November 1941, died 8th September 1983, married 2ndly, 21st September 1986, Yuvrani Aysha Devi [née Yashwant Kumari Shekhawat], born 1st December 1948, and has issue.
Privy Purse: 390,000R

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

BOATS on old indian banknote DHOW




A dhow (Arabic,داو) is a traditional Arab sailing vessel with one or more lateen sails. They are primarily used along the coasts of the Arabian Peninsula, Pakistan, India, and East Africa. Larger dhows have crews of approximately thirty, while smaller dhows typically have crews of around twelve.
Even to the present day Dhows make commercial journeys between the Persian Gulf and East Africa using sails as their only means of propulsion. Their cargo is mostly dates and fish to East Africa and mangrove timber to the lands in the Persian Gulf. Often they sail south with the monsoon in winter or early spring and back again to Arabia in late spring or early summer.

The term "dhow" is also applied to small, traditionally-constructed vessels used for trade in the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf area and the Indian Ocean from Madagascar to the Gulf of Bengal. Such vessels typically weigh 300 to 500 tons, and have a long, thin hull design.

Also, it is a family of early Arab ships that used the lateen sail on which the Portuguese likely based their designs for the caravel known to Arabs as sambuk, booms, baggalas, ghanjas, and zaruqs.
For celestial navigation, dhow sailors have traditionally used the kamal. This observation device determines latitude by finding the angle of the Pole Star above the horizon.

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

LIST OF POSTS IN THIS BLOG



Bank of Bengal,Bombay & Madras.
http://salembanknote.blogspot.com
http://banknotepricelist.blogspot.com
http://rareindianbanknotes.blogspot.com
http://borninpost.blogspot.com
http://islamicscience.vox.com
Imperial bank of India
Bank notes of BRITISH-INDIA
SHIVA KESAVA ON COIN
Dhrangadhra banknote
BOATS on old indian banknote DHOW
LIST OF POSTS IN THIS BLOG
Gestapo death camp banknotes of Vilnus Ghetto
FLICKR LINK OF COINS
GESTAPO GHETTO BANKNOTES IN VILNUS
See coins photos modern Ancient medieval at FLICKR
SAMPLE LIST OF ITEMS WITH ME
hyderabad banknote,50rs india,telegram1904,LK jha 1rs
BYZANTINE FIRE SHIPS,see cup shape byzantine coins
FANTACY OF HISTORIANS BYZANTINE DYNASTY
jaipur pink city king photo stamp
CLAY LETTER COVER OF SUMERIA 3200 YEARS OLD
CHARMINAR SYMBLE OF Nizams Islamic art
map coin flag mint mark coin
BIRTH OF HYDERABAD BACK OF BANKNOTE
HYDERABAD BANKNOTES flag
bangladesh polymer bn
ERROR 50 RUPEES BANKNOTES NO FLAG ON FLAGPOLE
BANKNOTES ON The Parliament of India
OLD BRITISH INDIA COVERS
SHIP PASSPORT WITH KING SIGNATURE
Asian Numismatic news
We all know what a bank does photo of cut paste rare bn
Popal states 1848 which region ask
SALEM Banknote,India page1 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA
SALEM Banknote,India page2 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA
SALEM Banknote,India page3 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA
SALEM Banknote,India page4 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA
SALEM Banknote,India page5 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA
SALEM Banknote article page1 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA
SPECIMEN BANKNOTE OF CHILE ALL 00000000
SPECIMEN CHILE BANKNOTE 000000000
Saadhana Soorulu Folk Arts
Banknote on Weaving in khemr nation
Bhuddism in greek,aramic,khemr MAP
SUMERIAN,Akkadian Postal history
Spread of Buddhism by messages on ROCK,
RAJGHAT FDC,places of Delhi 15 FDC for SALE
russian japanese message
ZEMAITU BANK NOTE FROM BALTICS BACK OF NOTE
zemaitija banknotes from russian czar kingdom
SAMOGITIA NEW NATION BANKNOTE VERY RARE
BANK NOTE FLAG OF SAMAGOTIA NATION
Thanks THANKS Thanks for your RESPONSE
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$

PART 2 of SALEM BANK IN INDIA
Places of DELHI,indipex1970- 15 FDC
TRIMURTHY postcards
Census ads on postcards
Asian Numismatic NEWS
BANK OF BENGAL ,FARMAN,etc
EAST India company 1862 bank note
DEERS on 5 Rupees indian banknotes
RARE FRENCH INDIA banknote of PONDICHERRY
Blank watermark sheet of BRITISH INDIA 5 Rupees note

Elephants in Jungle of Bamboos,WEALTH,&Prosperity giver.
ERROR 100 Rs Indian banknotes,Wealth symble.
GANDHI 1rupee 2rupee 2 rupee error YAAA
silver rs 2 rs double ??????
Provincial bannotes of ZAIRE rare spelling***
100 Error bank note A big and small ask info
1 rupee KRK menon,Ambegowkaer NO 1 and 2
GANDHI,10 rupees;NEHRU 5 rupees rare
George VI 5RS front face & sideface musham3@gmail.com,
ANANDA Dynasty off shoots of SATAVAHANA,SPECIMEN TRAVELLER CHEQUES RARE 00000000
HYDERABAD BN STAMPSsee label of banknote by saving bn or click on bn see at bottom last
Exchange indian banknotes,british india banknotes
GVI 5 10 1963 1rs 1 rs charminar coin 10 new
GANDHI NOTES,khadi banknotes,handmade paper as gandhi told
Gandhi notes of india,KHADI NOTES 2 rs gandhi 2**
SOME MORE CHEQUES OF BANK OF CHINA
bank of china CHEQUES OF CALCUTTA BRANCH
BANK OF CHINA OPENED ITS BRANCH IN CALCUTTA CLOSED IN 1941
BANK OF CHINA OPENED ITS BRANCH IN CALCUTTA IN 1937
Bank of china bonds before civilwar in china
Bank of china bond backside used in calcutta rare
CHINA banking items used in china during BRITISH INDIA
RUSSIAN ,SPAIN,STAMP COIN MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM
DINAJPUR,JUNAGARH,MENGHNI,CASH ,CARBOARDCOINS,
CARD BOARD COINS OF INDIA DURING BRITISH PERIOD;musham3@gmail.com,

SamudraManthan scene on ANGORVAT and BANKNOTE,musham3@gmail.com
HYDERABAD and BERAR INCLUDED HOW BIG WAS telangana,SEEE
UNC GEORGE VI side face BANKNOTE,musham,
RUPEE value basket from silver to GOLD,musham,
British INDIA rare 5 rs banknate with unique design,musham 5 taylor white
INDIAN BANK NOTES in series: musham3@gmail.com
HISTORY OF SATAVAHANA RULERS ,musham3@gmail.com,
SATAVAHANA rulers birth by ASWAMEGHA yagam,musham3@gmail.com
SATAVAHANA DYNASTY OF TELANGANA BHUDDISTS
ERROR 100 rupees A big SecondA small RARE
BIBLE period coin used by local people,musham3@gmail.com,
BritishIndia 1891 indiastock company banknote 222****
Animals on republic india banknotes,jaipur king photo
British india banknotes GEORGE VI notes
Hyderabad Nizam Bank notes
Nether india coins VOC nagapatnam coin
Portuguese india
Denmark indian colony coins rare
1819 to1890 Bank of Bengal Documents very rare
Khadhi industry handmade YARN
Gandhi comm two rupees
King PHOTO series JAIPUR king
Britishindia one rupee banknote georgeVI
NO FLAG ON FLAGPOLE OVER INDIAN PARLIAMENT
First one rupee of Republic INDIA, KRK MENON
NEW 500 rupees UNC gandhi
ERROR rupayyaa in place of rupaeee in old 100 rupee note
The Chartered bank of India,Australia&China bank item Check
100 rupees note with DAM
British india banknote of GeorgeVI front face RARE
Watermarked plain paper of BRITISH INDIA 5 Rupees
MY BLOGS BLOGS BLOGS ;;;
List of ancient coins from ALEXANDER,BIBLE,ROMAN period
ANCIENT from alexander period,Islamic coins STAMPS etc,
List of indian bank note general information
India Stock Note1891 similar to USA P-280 UNCAT
KHADI note of hand cotton spinning corporation
HYDERABAD STATE in south india ARABIC/urdu script
Error hindi yaa;corrected indi 2 diff signs ;
EERRORR BANK NOTE ONE NO MISSING AT BOTTOM VERY RARE; ak 1 RS RARAE
Error 5Rs bn;RamaRao 5Rs;PC B5 rs;10Rs L kJha;10Rs kashmir garden on back rare design
Posted by Indian Bank Notes at 12:56 AM 0 comments
5Rs H V IyengerP-35,PC BattacharyaP-36;Rs10RamaRao only ENGLISH rare P-37;
Error hindi letter YAAA in place of YA; P-38 contact musham@gmail.com
Indian bank note with ELEPHANT pair in the FOREST one elephant with uplifting trunk
BACK SIDE OF P-43 AU[all indian notes of earliar period have pin holes
and thought as UNC in this state ok] ask for rates and

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

Tuesday, August 18, 2009

Gestapo death camp banknotes of Vilnus Ghetto


The Vilna Ghetto, Wilno Ghetto or Vilnius Ghetto a Jewish ghetto established by Nazi Germany in the city of Vilnius during the Holocaust in World War II. During roughly two years of its existence, starvation, disease, street executions, maltreatment and deportations to concentration camps and extermination camps reduced the population of the ghetto from an estimated 40,000 to zero. Only several hundred people managed to survive, mostly by hiding in the forests surrounding the town, joining the Soviet partisans or finding shelter among sympathetic locals.
German troops entered Vilnius on 26 June 1941, followed by units of the Einsatzgruppe A. Over the course of the summer, German troops and Lithuanian civilians and Lithuanian police killed more than 21,000 Jews living in Vilnius in a rapid extermination program. Vilna or Vilnius was a predominantly Polish and Jewish city until Joseph Stalin gave it back to Lithuania in October 1939 according to the Soviet–Lithuanian Mutual Assistance Treaty. The Republic of Lithuania had claimed it as its capital and the dispute between Poland and Lithuania was a long-standing one at the League of Nations. The Republic of Lithuania, operating out of the provisional capital Kaunas, sent in the Lithuanian Army to reclaim the city and embarked on a project to Lithuanianize the city. This included operations by the Lithuanian State Security agency, who seized on the opportunity for ethnic cleansing offered by the arrival of the Third Reich and helped orchestrate the kidnapping and murder of Jews in the city before the ghetto was set up. The deportation from the United States of Aleksandras Lileikis to face (an ultimately unsuccessful) trial in Lithuania revolves around the role he played in the Lithuanian State Security apparatus in the murder of Jews. These kidnappers were known in Yiddish as hapunes, meaning grabbers or snatchers. In the months that followed Poles were also targeted by Lithuanian and German authorities. Newspapers published by the Polish underground in Lithuania and Poland were virulently anti-Semitic[citation needed] early on and remained so until late into World War II. The Jewish population of Vilnius on the eve of the Holocaust was probably more than 60,000, including refugees from Poland and subtracting the small number who managed to flee onward to the Soviet Union.

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

FLICKR LINK OF COINS


ancient,bible,byzantine,moghul,sultanate,moghul farmans,philately,numismatics,
british india,banknotes,postal,history,stamps,USA banknotes,

FLICKR LINK OF COINS

FOR BIGGER IMAGE CLICK ON IMAGE OK

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

See coins photos modern Ancient medieval at FLICKR

http://www.flickr.com/photos/numisphil/

See coins photos modern Ancient medieval at FLICKR 200 plus photos of wide selection some of my collection some are EXTRA for exchange sale

ASK ME FOR DETAILS ON DESCRIPTION ETC TO MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

http://www.flickr.com/photos/numisphil/

Panchala 400BC 3k
hyderabad rare type 18$
sikh flower 29*
kaut coin bhuddist rare 18*
East india company 30*

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

SAMPLE LIST OF ITEMS WITH ME



SAMPLE LIST OF ITEMS WITH ME CLICK ON PHOTO TO SEE THE DOUBLE SIZE CLEAR IMAGE
ANY DOUBT MAIL TO MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM


INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

hyderabad banknote,50rs india,telegram1904,LK jha 1rs


hyderabad banknote,50rs india,telegram1904,LK jha 1rs

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

BYZANTINE FIRE SHIPS,see cup shape byzantine coins



The Greek fire SHIP was first used by the Byzantine Navy during the Byzantine-Arab Wars (from the Madrid Skylitzes,

Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid).
The Arabs, now firmly in control of Syria and the Levant, sent frequent raiding parties deep into Anatolia, and

between 674 and 678 laid siege to Constantinople itself. The Arab fleet was finally repulsed through the use of

Greek fire, and a thirty-years' truce was signed between the empire and caliphate. The Anatolian raids

continued unabated, and accelerated the demise of classical urban culture, with the inhabitants of many cities

either refortifying much smaller areas within the old city walls, or relocating entirely to nearby fortresses.

The void left by the disappearance of the old semi-autonomous civic institutions was filled by the theme

system, which entailed the division of Anatolia into "provinces" occupied by distinct armies which assumed

civil authority and answered directly to the imperial administration. This system may have had its roots in

certain ad hoc measures taken by Heraclius, but over the course of the seventh century it developed into an

entirely new system of imperial governance.

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

FANTACY OF HISTORIANS BYZANTINE DYNASTY


The Byzantine Empire or Eastern Roman Empire, known to its inhabitants as the Roman Empire, the Empire of the Romans (Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn Rhōmaíōn) and also as Romania (Ῥωμανία, Rhōmanía), was the continuation of the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered on its capital of Constantinople, and ruled by Emperors in direct succession to the ancient Roman Emperors. The Empire preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, but due to the increasing predominance of the Greek language,it became known to most of its western and northern contemporaries usually as the Empire of the Greeks. In the Islamic world it was known primarily as روم (Rûm "Rome"). The term "Byzantine Empire" was popularized by historians during the 16th – 19th centuries.

The Eastern Roman Empire's evolution from the ancient Roman Empire is sometimes dated from Emperor Constantine I's transfer of the capital from Nicomedia (in Anatolia) to Byzantium on the Bosphorus, which became Constantinople (alternatively "New Rome"). By the 7th century, increased eastern cultural influences, reforms by Emperor Heraclius, and the adoption of Greek as the official language, distinguished the later Roman character from its ancient character.

During its thousand-year existence the Empire remained one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe, despite setbacks and territorial losses, especially during the Roman–Persian and Byzantine–Arab Wars. After the Komnenian restoration briefly re-established dominance in the 12th century, the Empire slipped into a long decline, with the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars culminating in the Fall of Constantinople and its remaining territories to the Muslim Ottoman Turks in the 15th century.
The term "Byzantine Empire" is an invention of historians and was never used during the Empire's lifetime. The Empire's name in Greek was Basileia ton Rhōmaiōn (Greek: Βασιλεία των Ῥωμαίων)— "The Empire of the Romans"— a translation of the Latin name of the Roman Empire (Latin: Imperium Romanōrum); unofficially it was also called as Rhōmania (Greek: Ῥωμανία) or Rhōmaís (Ῥωμαΐς).The term "Byzantine" itself comes from "Byzantium", the name that the city of Constantinople had before it became the capital of Constantine. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.


INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

Monday, August 17, 2009

jaipur pink city king photo stamp


Jaipur also popularly known as the Pink City, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. Historically rendered as Jeypore, Jaipur is the former capital of the princely state of Jaipur. Founded in 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh, the ruler of Amber, the city today has a population of more than 5 million residents.

Built of pink stucco in imitation of sandstone, the city is remarkable among pre-modern Indian cities for the width and regularity of its streets which are laid out into six sectors separated by broad streets 111 ft (34 m) wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses a sprawling palace complex (the Hawa Mahal, or palace of winds), formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. Another noteworthy building is Sawai Jai Singh's observatory, Jantar Mantar

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

CLAY LETTER COVER OF SUMERIA 3200 YEARS OLD


Old Akkadian, which was used until the end of the third century BCE, differs from both Babylonian and Assyrian; and was displaced by these dialects. The two dialects, which were to become the primary dialects, were easily distinguishable by the 21st century BCE. Old Babylonian, along with the closely related dialect Mariotic, is clearly more innovative than the Old Assyrian dialect and the more distantly related Eblaite language. For this reason, forms like lu-prus (I will decide) are first encountered in Old Babylonian instead of the older la-prus(even though it was archaic compared to Akkadian). On the other hand, Assyrian developed certain innovations as well, such as the "Assyrian vowel harmony" (which is not comparable to that found in Turkish or Finnish). Eblaite is even more archaic, retaining a productive dual and a relative pronoun declined in case, number and gender. Both of which had already disappeared in Old Akkadian.
Old Babylonian was the language of king Hammurabi and his code, which was one of the oldest collections of laws in the world.
The Middle Babylonian (or Assyrian) period started in the 1500s BCE. The division comes from the Kassite invasion of Babylonia around 1550 BCE, and their reign for 300 years. The Kassites gave up their own language in favor of Akkadian, but they had little influence on the language. At its apogee, Middle Babylonian was the written language of diplomacy of the entire ancient Orient, including Egypt. During this period, a large number of loan words were included in the language from North West Semitic languages and Hurrian; however, the use of these words was confined to the fringes of the Akkadian speaking territory.

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

CHARMINAR SYMBLE OF Nizams Islamic art


The Nizams patronized Islamic art, culture and literature and developed railway network in Hyderabad. Islamic Sharia law was the guiding principle of the Nizams' official machinery.

FLAG

The Asafia flag of Hyderabad. The script along the top reads Al Azmatulillah meaning "All greatness is for God". The bottom script reads Ya Uthman which translates to "Oh Uthman". The writing in the middle reads "Nizam-ul-Mulk Asif Jah"

nizam of hyderabad,hyderabad banknotes,flag of hyderabad,asaf jha,mohuls in hyderabad,aurangazeb in hyderabad,hyderabad farmans,hyderabad coins,first stamps of hyderabad,toughra on coins,

See my blogs http://islamicscience.vox.com/
http://historyofplayingcards.wordpress.com/

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

BIRTH OF HYDERABAD BACK OF BANKNOTE


Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golkonda. In 1686 the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb campaigned in the Deccan to overcome the Marathas and conquer the independent Deccan states. Before the campaign, the Mughals had controlled the northwestern Deccan, including Khandesh and Berar, but Mughal control ended at the Godavari River. Aurangzeb conquered Golconda and Bijapur in 1687, extending Mughal control south of the Krishna River.

The Mughal Empire began to weaken during the reign of Aurangzeb's grandson, Muhammad Shah. A Mughal official, Asif Jah, treacherously defeated a rival Mughal governor to seize control of the empire's southern provinces, declaring himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. The Mughal emperor, under renewed attack from the Marathas, was unable to prevent it.

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

HYDERABAD BANKNOTES


Hyderābād state was the largest princely state in the erstwhile British Indian Empire. It was located in the south-central region of the Indian subcontinent, and was ruled, from 1724 until 1948, by a hereditary Nizam. The Berar region of the state was merged with the Central Provinces of British India in 1903, to form the Central Provinces and Berar.

In 1947, at the time of the partition of India and the formation of the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan, the then Nizam, Osman Ali Khan, decided not to join either new nation. However, the following year, the Government of India incorporated Hyderabad into the Indian Union, using military force, in what was known as Operation Polo led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

Sunday, August 16, 2009

BANGLADESH POLYMER BANKNOTES EXCHANGE


Sheikh Mujibur Rahman March 17, 1920 ,August 15, 1975 was a Bengali politician and the founding leader of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, generally considered in the country as the father of the Bengali nation. He headed the Awami League, served as the first President of Bangladesh and later became its Prime Minister. He is popularly referred to as Sheikh Mujib, and with the honorary title of Bangabandhu ,Friend of Bengal. His eldest daughter Sheikh Hasina Wajed is the present leader of the Awami League and the current Prime Minister of Bangladesh.

A student political leader, Mujib rose in East Pakistani politics and within the ranks of the Awami League as a charismatic and forceful orator. An advocate of socialism, Mujib became popular for his leadership against the ethnic and institutional discrimination of Bengalis. He demanded increased provincial autonomy, and became a fierce opponent of the military rule of Ayub Khan. At the heightening of sectional tensions, Mujib outlined a 6-point autonomy plan, which was seen as separatism in West Pakistan. He was tried in 1968 for allegedly conspiring with the Indian government but was not found guilty. Despite leading his party to a major victory in the 1970 elections, Mujib was not invited to form the government.

After talks broke down with President Yahya Khan and West Pakistani politician Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Sheikh Mujib on 26 March, 1971 announced the declaration of independence of East Pakistan and announced the establishment of the sovereign People's Republic of Bangladesh. Subsequently he was arrested and tried by Rahimuddin Khan in a military court during his nine month detention. Guerrilla war erupted between government forces and Bengali nationalists aided by India. An all out war between the Pakistan Army and Bangladesh-India Joint Forces led to the establishment of Bangladesh, and after his release Mujib assumed office as a provisional president, and later prime minister. Even as a constitution was adopted, proclaiming socialism and a secular democracy, Mujib struggled to address the challenges of intense poverty and unemployment, coupled with rampant corruption. Amidst rising popular agitation, he banned other political parties and established a one party state. After only seven months, Mujib was assassinated along with his family by a group of army officers.

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

ERROR 50 RUPEES BANKNOTES NO FLAG ON FLAGPOLE


NO FLAG ON FLAGPOLE OF PARLIAMENT
The Rajya Sabha is also known as "Council of States" or the upper house. Its members are indirectly elected by members of legislative bodies of the States.

The Rajya Sabha. Elections to it are scheduled and the chamber cannot be dissolved. Each member has a term of 6 years and elections are held for one-third of the seats after every 2 years. The composition is specified in Article 80 of the Constitution of India.

12 members are nominated by the President from people having special knowledge or experience in literature, science, art or social services.
Representatives of States are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote.
Representatives of Union Territories are indirectly elected by members of an electoral college for that territory in accordance with system of proportional representation.

The Council of States is designed to maintain the federal character of the country. The number of members from a state depends on the population of the state (e.g. 31 from Uttar Pradesh and one from Nagaland).

The minimum age for a person to become a member of Rajya Sabha is 30 years

Building

The Parliament House (Sansad Bhavan) is a circular building designed by the British architects Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker in 1912–1913. Construction began in 1921, and in 1927 the building was opened as the home of the Council of State, the Central Legislative Assembly, and the Chamber of Princes. The roof of the outer circle of the structure is supported by 144 granite pillars. The Houses are located on Janpath, a stone's throw away from the presidential palace (Rashtrapati Bhavan).It is also seen from the India Gate.

The former Chamber of Princes was home to the Supreme Court of India until 1958.INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

BANKNOTES ON The Parliament of India


The Parliament of India is the federal and supreme legislative body of India. It consists of the office of President of India and two houses, the lower house, known as the Lok Sabha and the upper house, known as the Rajya Sabha. It is located in New Delhi at Sansad Bhavan on Sansad Marg. Any bill can become an act only after it is passed by both the houses of the Parliament and assented by the President. The Central Hall of the Parliament is used for combined sittings of the lower and upper houses and is of historical significance.

The Lok Sabha is also known as the "House of the People" or the lower house. Almost all of its members are directly elected by citizens of India. It is the more powerful of the two houses and can precede or overrule the Rajya Sabha (upper house) in certain matters.

The Lok Sabha can have up to 552 members as envisaged in the Constitution of India (Article 81). It has a term of 5 years but it may be dissolved earlier by the President in the event of no confidence motion. Its duration may also be increased during any national emergency. To be eligible for membership of Lok Sabha, a person must be a citizen of India and must be more than 25 years of age. Up to 530 members can be elected from the states, up to 20 members from the Union territories and no more than two members from the Anglo-Indian community can be nominated by the President of India,that is if the president feels that the Anglo-Indian community is not adequacy represented.

The representatives from States and Union territories are directly elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. Every citizen who is over 18 years of age, irrespective of gender, caste, religion or race, who is otherwise not disqualified, is eligible to vote

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

OLD BRITISH INDIA COVERS



DIPLOMATIC MAIL, FIRST FLIGHT,FIRST NIGHT FLIGHT,CENSORED,FDC,used mint POST CARDS on all themes special concession postcards only used for children, ISSUED ONLY IN INDIA, POSTCARDS USED FOR TELEVISION COMPETION AT VERY HIGH RATES,

INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

SHIP PASSPORT WITH KING SIGNATURE


Ancient FLAGS, ancient indian coins, Armenians, bimetal coins, byzantine coins, Byzantine Empire, byzantine flag, chola coins, COAT of ARMS of DYNASTY, coins exchange, Constantinople, cup shape coins, danish india coins, dutch india coins, exchange of banknotes, french india coins, greeks, iksvaku coins, indian ancient coins, indian banknotes, indian coins, jesus on coin, king with cross, lead coins, Mythology on COINS, New Rome, OTTOMAN, pondicherry coins, RARE SHAPE COINS, Roman coins, roman empire, satavahana coins, stamps exchange, world banknotes,numis phil india,british india banknotes,indian banknotes,republic india,ancient coins,firman,sultanate coins,farmans,SAMOGITIA,new nation banknote,zemaitija BANKNOTES,


INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

Asian Numismatic news


INDIAN BANKNOTES ANCIENT COINS,STAMPS,POSTAL HISTORY,,,
musham3@gmail.com

TEXT form of article "BANK OF SALEM" from "THE NUMISMATIST"


We all know what a bank does. It accepts our deposits, makes loans and carries out other financial activities. But is that what the mission of a bank should be? Or should a bank step outside of its traditional roles and focus on the social needs of its members? These are questions that the founders of the Salem District Urban Bank Limited asked themselves. And in 1904, during the British occupation of India, a small group of Madras Presidency locals came up with a unique approach to banking - do what is right for the people they serve.

So with this backdrop, Sir P. Rajagopalachari, the first Registrar of Madras Central Bank, became the key figure driving the establishment of the Salem District Urban Bank in Tamil Nadu, India. As India's first cooperative bank, its initial focus was to help the poor by promoting savings but as we will discover later, it also had bigger ideas. The Salem Bank was inaugurated on 6 January 1904 with 16 members and a share capital of 1,000,000 Rupees and was presided over by the Government of India.

A novel approach was used by printing an initial quantity of 10,000 One Rupee "banknotes" and distributing them free to local patrons along with a savings box, similar to the Kiddy Bank scheme (helping kids save), as a way to encourage all poor people to start saving.

The 1 Rupee note was issued as a local currency receipt for the purpose of helping poor people in the district of Salem. Not intended to be a true circulating currency note, it could be redeemed 24 hours after presenting it to the Bank. As might be expected, this 1 Rupee became very popular and within a few months of issue a curious thing happened - it began passing from one person to another as happens with normal circulating currency...


With their success in helping the poor, the Salem District Union Bank governors set their sights on other pressing problems of the era. They initiated a local campaign to prohibit the use of liquor and encouraged people to save their alcohol money. Next came an anti-leprosy drive, in which the Bank hired its own leprosy doctor, an efficacious move.

Because of the power the Salem District Union Bank amassed, the British Crown agents began to suppress it, fearing that the Bank had anti-British intentions. These fears were not entirely without ground since the Bank was doing more for the people in this district than the Crown and they felt the pressure of the independence movement (athough it did not come for another half century).

Continuing to expand, a new building of the Salem Urban Bank Ltd. was inaugurated by the Prince of Mysore on 11 April 1932 at a site that cost 15,000 Rupees with a construction that reportedly cost 45,000 Rupees, a huge sum at the time.

The Salem Bank subtly exhibited an anti-British and pro-Indian stance and as a result, the deposits began rolling in. Then, under tremendous pressure from the British Government, they discontinued all development schemes including the issue of the popular 1 Rupee note, which they reluctantly withdrew, never to be issued again.

Although the results proved how important these local programs were to the community, they presented too much of a threat to the Crown's authority. The Bank eventually stopped the anti-liquor drive, dismissed the doctor who was treating the leprosy patients and discontinued the Kiddy Bank program altogether.

It is believed that all of the 1 Rupee notes were destroyed by the Bank under the pressure of the British Crown, save the surviving example shown above. This is the earliest reported instance in India where a Bank issued a banknote unilaterally for the benefit of poor and initiated other important social programs that had a significant impact on the local people. Unfortunately the Salem Bank closed its doors during World War II. This phenomenon studied by visitors from other parts of India, Ireland and the U.S.A. is one of the earliest examples of a successful local currency program.
India, Khadi Hundi
Of historic similarity to the Salem note is the Khadi Hundi, dedicated to Mohandas Karamchand "Mahatma" Ghandi who helped poor women spin Khadi cloth to improve their lives. Interestingly, the Andhra Bank of Andhra Pradesh re-instituted their Kiddy Bank program in 2007 allowing children from ages 10 thru 18 to open and manage their own accounts, capitalizing on the new economic prosperity of India.

MD We gratefully acknowledge Indian numismatist Musham Damodhar for submitting the above image and background information. Please visit his website:
http://musham.wordpress.com
http://islamicscience.vox.com/
http://postalindia.wordpress.com
http://philanumiscom.blogspot.com
[u can see list of 300+ rulers dynasty ancient coins in this blogs.ask for list]
http://oldindianbanknotes.blogspot.com/
http://indianbanknotes.vox.com
[where you will find a wide array of numismatic, philatelic and other unique material.]

This site also includes a very interesting history of playing cards, including the ancient Ganjifa Indian playing cards. Musham Damodhar also has a blog where you can find information about his son, who has been certified as the youngest accomplished stamp collectors in the world. Email: Musham Damodhar
Posted by Indian Bank Notes at 1:09 AM 0 comments
Labels: britishindia banknotes, indian coins, indian princely states, indian salem banknotes, madras presidency banknotes, rare indian banknotes, salem district urban bank, tamil coins
PHOTO OF indian salem banknote,madras presidency
MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM
Posted by Indian Bank Notes at 12:48 AM 0 comments
Labels: britishindia banknotes, indian coins, indian princely states, indian salem banknotes, madras presidency banknotes, rare indian banknotes, salem district urban bank, tamil coins
indian salem banknote,madras presidency
MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

Popal states 1848 which region ask


The Papal States, State(s) of the Church or Pontifical States (Italian: Stato Ecclesiastico, Stato Pontificio, Stato della Chiesa, Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii; Latin: Status Pontificius) were one of the major historical states of Italy from roughly the 6th century until the Italian peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (after which the Papal States, in less territorially extensive form, continued to exist until 1870).

The Papal States comprised territories under direct sovereign rule of the papacy, and at its height it covered most of the modern Italian regions of Romagna, Marche, Umbria and Lazio. This governing power is commonly called the temporal power of the Pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.

The plural Papal States is usually preferred; the singular Papal State (equally correct since it was not a mere personal union) is rather used (normally with lower-case letters) for the modern State of Vatican City, an enclave within Italy's national capital, Rome. Vatican City was founded in 1929, again allowing the Holy See the political benefits of territorial sovereignty.

SALEM Banknote,India page1 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA

SALEM Banknote,India page2 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

SALEM Banknote,India page3 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

SALEM Banknote,India page4 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

SALEM Banknote,India page5 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

SALEM Banknote article page1 in THE NUMISMATIST;USA


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY
INDIANBANKNOTES@GMAIL.COM

SPECIMEN BANKNOTE OF CHILE ALL 00000000


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

A specimen banknote is printed to as a way of checking to see whether or not the design is suitable for putting into full production as a currency issue.

Sometimes, specimen banknotes are printed for distribution to central banks to aid in the recognition of banknotes from a country other than their own.

Specimen notes have no legal tender status but have been used world-wide by issuing authorities to give a clear indication of the design. They only differ from normal circulation notes in that they are overprinted, which invalidates them as currency. Some types have either no serial numbers or all zeros even though several hundred of those notes might have been produced. In Australia, specimen notes have been issued for presentation to VIP's as well as reference material for major banks, commercial agencies and libraries. Most are very rare with small mintages, and because they have not entered into geeneral circulation, are of a very high quality – two key factors that have made them increase rapidly in value and will always make them popular to both investors and collectors.

SPECIMEN CHILE BANKNOTE 000000000



MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

SadanaShurulu greatness of PADMASHALI’s


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM




Saadhana Soorulu Folk Arts

1]Saadhana Soorulu are those who, with a lot of devotion and concentration, learn magic or Indrajala and give performances in the art of magic. They are known to produce miracles and shock their audiences.
They belong to the Padmashali community are dependent on the weavers in this community with whose permission they give performances. The team performing this art form consists of six men. They go around villages throughout the year and give magic performances. They stay for five or six days in a village.

Performances are given in open places where there is scope for a good gathering. They are arranged during daytime only. No make-up is necessary for this performance. A few of these performances are detailed below. Four poles are fixed in the place of the performance. A man is tied to a pole with rope and completely covered with cloth.

When the cover is removed, the man tied to one pole is made to appear at another pole. Another item in the performance is what is known as Agnisthambhana. This is done by fixing a stout needle on the head of a man. A shallow vessel is placed on the other end of’ the needle with a flame under the vessel. Rotis are baked on the vessel after this. Another magic performance is known as Jalasthambhana. In this they show a person drinking water with his mouth and letting the water out through his ears and nose.

Yet another is Vayusthambhana. This is done by making ones body light, controlling breathing and then weighing the body on a light scale. By doing such magical acts, Saadhana Soorulu continue their performance for about three hours. They have Katladi (right for collection) with the Padmashali community. Performance is their main source of livelihood.
Sadahanasuroolu are depicted at bottom of 500 rial note on Cambodian[next to Vietnam] currency cut bottom panel to get good view

Banknote on Weaving in khemr nation


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM


Banknote on Weaving in khemr nation

A loom is a machine or device for weaving thread or yarn into textiles. Looms can range from very small hand-held frames, to large free-standing hand looms, to huge automatic mechanical devices. The ancient Egyptians and Chinese used looms as early as 4000 BC.
The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads. The precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same.
Weaving is the textile art in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads, called the warp and the filling or weft (older woof), are interlaced with each other to form a fabric or cloth. The warp threads run lengthways of the piece of cloth, and the weft runs across from side to side.
Warp and weft in plain weaving.
Cloth is woven on a loom, a device for holding the warp threads in place while the filling threads are woven through them. Weft is an old English word meaning “that which is woven”.
The manner in which the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is known as the weave. The three basic weaves are plain weave, satin weave, and twill, and the majority of woven products are created with one of these weaves.Woven cloth can be plain (in one color or a simple pattern), or it can be woven in decorative or artistic designs, including tapestries. Fabric in which the warp and/or weft is tie-dyed before weaving is called ikat.

Bhuddism in greek,aramic,khemr MAP


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM


Bhuddism in greek,aramic,khemr MAP

Proselytism within Ashoka’s territories

Inside India proper, in the realm of Ashoka, many different populations were the object of the King’s

proselytism:

“Here in the king’s domain among the Greeks, the Kambojas, the Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the

Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods’ instructions in

Dhamma.” Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika)

Greek communities lived in the northwest of the Mauryan empire, in the region of Pakistan, notably ancient

Gandhara near the Pakistani capital of Islamabad, and in southern Afghanistan in the region of Gedrosia,

following the conquest and the colonization efforts of Alexander the Great around 323 BC. These communities

therefore seem to have been still significant during the reign of Ashoka. A notable mention references aspects

of Greek society.

There is no country, except among the Greeks, where these two groups, Brahmans and ascetics, are not found, and

there is no country where people are not devoted to one or another religion” Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika)

Bilingual inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar (Shar-i-kuna). Kabul Museum.

Two edicts in Afghanistan have been found with Greek inscriptions, one of these being a bilingual edict in

Greek language and Aramaic. This edict, found in Kandahar, advocates the adoption of “Piety” (using the Greek

term Eusebeia for Dharma) to the Greek community:

“Ten years (of reign) having been completed, King Piodasses (one of the titles of Ashoka: Piyadassi or

Priyadarsi, “He who is the beloved of the Gods and who regards everyone amiably”) made known (the doctrine of)

Piety (Greek:e?s?ße?a, Eusebeia) to men; and from this moment he has made men more pious, and everything

thrives throughout the whole world. And the king abstains from (killing) living beings, and other men and those

who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have desisted from hunting. And if some (were) intemperate, they

have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power; and obedient to their father and mother and to the

elders, in opposition to the past also in the future, by so acting on every occasion, they will live better and

more happily.” (Trans. by G.P. Carratelli

Kambojas are a people of Central Asian origin who had settled first in Arachosia and Drangiana (today’s

southern Afghanistan), and then in the northwestern Indian subcontinent in Sindhu, Gujarat and Sauvira.
* The Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas are other people under

Ashoka’s rule.

SUMERIAN,Akkadian Postal history


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

SUMERIAN,Akkadian Postal history

The Akkadian Empire was an empire centered in the city of Akkad Biblical Accad in central Mesopotamia present

day Iraq.The city of Akkad was situated on the west bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (in Iraq,

about 50 km (31 mi) southwest of the center of Baghdad). Despite an extensive search, the precise site has

never been found. It reached the height of its power between the 24th and 22nd centuries BC, following the

conquests of king Sargon of Akkad.
Because of the policies of the Akkadian Empire toward linguistic assimilation, Akkad also gave its name to the

predominant Semitic dialect: the Akkadian language, reflecting use of akkadû (”in the language of Akkad”) in

the Old Babylonian period to denote the Semitic version of a Sumerian text.
The form Agade appears in Sumerian, for example in the Sumerian King List; the later Assyro-Babylonian form

Akkadû belonging to Akkad It is possible that the Sumerian name, despite its unetymological spelling A.GA.DÈ,

is from AGA.DÈ, meaning “Crown of Fire” in allusion to Ishtar, “the brilliant goddess”, whose cult was observed

from very early times in Agade. Centuries later, the neo-Babylonian king Nabonidus mentioned in his

archaeological records[4] that Ishtar’s worship in Agade was later superseded by that of the goddess Anunit,

whose shrine was at Sippar—suggesting proximity of Sippar and Agade.Despite numerous searches, the city has

never been found. One theory holds that Agade was situated opposite Sippar on the left bank of the Euphrates,

and was perhaps the oldest part of the city of Sippar. Another theory is that the ruins of Akkad are to be

found beneath modern Baghdad. Reputedly it was destroyed by invading Gutians with the fall of the Akkadian

Empire.

The first known mention of the city of Akkad is in an inscription of Enshakushanna of Uruk, where he claims to

have defeated Agade—indicating that it was in existence well before the days of Sargon of Akkad, who the

Sumerian kinglist claims to have built it.Akkad is mentioned once in the Tanakh—Book of Genesis 10:10: And the

beginning of his Nimrod’s kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. The Greek

(LXX) spelling in this passage is Archad.

Spread of Buddhism by messages on ROCK,


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

Spread of Buddhism by messages on ROCK,

The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave

walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BC. These

inscriptions are dispersed throughout the areas of modern-day Pakistan, Nepal and India, and represent the

first tangible evidence of Buddhism. The edicts describe in detail the first wide expansion of Buddhism through

the sponsorship of one of the most powerful kings of Indian history. According to the edicts, the extent of

Buddhist proselytism during this period reached as far as the Mediterranean, and many Buddhist monuments were

created.

These inscriptions proclaim Ashoka’s beliefs in the Buddhist concept of dharma and his efforts to develop the

dharma throughout his kingdom. Although Buddhism and the Buddha are mentioned, the edicts focus on social and

moral precepts rather than religious practices or the philosophical dimension of Buddhism.

In these inscriptions, Ashoka refers to himself as “Beloved of the Gods” and “King Priya-darshi.” The

identification of King Priya-darshi with Ashoka was confirmed by an inscription discovered in 1915. The

inscriptions found in the eastern part of India were written in the Magadhi language, using the Brahmi script.

In the western part of India, the language used is closer to Sanskrit, using the Kharoshthi script, one extract

of Edict 13 in the Greek language, and one bilingual edict written in Greek and Aramaic.These edicts were

decodified by British archeologist and historian James Prinsep.

The inscriptions revolve around a few repetitive themes: Ashoka’s conversion to Buddhism, the description of

his efforts to spread Buddhism, his moral and religious precepts, and his social and animal welfare program.
In order to propagate the Buddhist faith, Ashoka explains he sent emissaries to the Hellenistic kings as far as

the Mediterranean, and to the peoples throughout India, claiming they were all converted to the Dharma as a

result. He names the Greek rulers of the time, inheritors of the conquest of Alexander the Great, from Bactria

to as far as Greece and North Africa, displaying an amazingly clear grasp of the political situation at the

time...

RAJGHAT FDC,with places of DELHI 15 FDC 1970

MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM
RAJGHAT FDC,places of Delhi 15 FDC for SALE

Rajghat,is the place where Mahatma Gandhi was cremated. A memorial to the father of the nation,
Set in the midst of deep green lawns, Rajghat is the place where Mahatma Gandhi was cremated. A memorial to the

father of the nation, Rajghat is a simple square platform with a black memorial stone with “Hey Ram” inscribed

on it.
“Hey Ram” were the last words uttered by the Mahatma before collapsing after being shot at.
Located on the west bank of the River Yamuna, Rajghat is surrounded by a wooded area and several exotic shrubs

that

give the area a serene ambience. Walk along the ornate stone pathways as you relax on your tours to the samadhi

of

one of the greatest leaders, statesman and humanist ever born.

India Travel Portal arranges for you to pay your respects at Rajghat and feel an indescribable peace as you

approach

the resting place of one of the greatest proponents of non-violence.
Also tour the Gandhi Memorial Museum and the Gandhi Balidan Sthal as a part of your Rajghat tours with India

Travel

Portal.

Delhi Forts are the sheer reminders of the glorious era of city’s successive dynasties. Visit the colossal Red

Fort

and Old Fort two major attractions of the city capital.

Monumental heritage of Delhi is well preserved in its forts, palaces, temples and mosques. Visit the

magnificent

Qutub Minar that holds lot of surprises in its colossal minaret.
India Gate is constructed as a memorial and was built in the memory of 90,00 soldiers who laid down their lives

during world war I. Located at Rajpath, India Gate is 42 m high and is popular relaxation area during the

summer

evenings. India Gate also act as popular pinic spot during winter. Also known as the All India War Memorial,

India

Gate was designed and constructed by Lutyens. He was the who is considered the chief proclaimer in designing

the New

Delhi plans.

If it were not for the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919, the Parliament House may not have been built. It’s

corny

how the building most indispensable to modern Indian democracy came up as an afterthought. Earlier called the

Circular House, it was added to the layout at a later stage following the reforms which created a large

Legislative

Assembly.
This edifice is the brainchild of Herbert Baker and was much criticized in comparison with Lutyens creations.

An

article by Robert Byron in Architectural Review, January 1931describes it thus: “The Council Chamber has been

Sir

Herbert’s unhappiest venture. Its effect from a distance has been described. It resembles a Spanish bull-ring,

lying

like a mill-wheel dropped accidentally on its side.”

The Viceroy Palace remains Lutyens most significant achievement. It is befittingly the crowning glory of the

British

Empire and architecture in India. Today, it is perhaps India’s best known monument after the Taj Mahal and the

Qutub

Minar. Bigger than the Palace of Versailles, it cost a whopping £12,53,000 and now houses the President of

India. It

is unquestionably a masterpiece of symmetry, discipline, silhouette, colour and harmony. of course, it has come

in

for much criticism too but that has mostly been limited to the imperial intent behind it rather than its

architecture.
The construction of Humayun’s tomb was taken up by the grief-stricken wife of Humayun, Hamida Banu, also known

as

Bega Begam in 1565. Legend has it that the design of the Taj was inspired from this tomb’s. In pure

architectural

sense, this building is probably superior and much more beautiful that the stunning Taj. Sacrilege? But really,

the

only thing this building lacks is the showy marble.

Humayun- The Mughal Emperor Costructed The Fort
When the second Mughal emperor Humayun decided to make a city of his own he decided on the site of the ancient

city

of Indraprastha. Humayun was quite a scholar with a fine grasp on such matters and so it is certain that the

site was

chosen deliberately. When his Sher Shah Suri overthrew him, he destroyed most of Dinpanah (refuge of the

faithful) as

the city of Humayun was called to make way for his own Dilli Sher Shahi or Shergarh. Incidentally, Humayun was

probably the only emperor in history who built a city in Delhi and did not give it his own name – this was

typical of

Humayun’s rather sophisticated and dreamy character. The Layout of The Massive Colossal

Jantar Mantar
¤ An Observatory
The Jantar Mantar was built in 1710 by Raja Jai Singh II of Jaipur (1699-1743) in Delhi. This is an observatory

consisting of mason-built astronomical instruments to chart the course of the heavens. Jai Singh, who was a

very

scholarly king with a very keen interest in astronomy and astrology, had other observatories built too – in

Ujjain,

Jaipur, Mathura (which no longer survives) and Varanasi.
The first among these was this one in Delhi. The yantras (instruments, which has been distorted to Jantar) are

built

of brick rubble and plastered with lime. The yantras have evocative names like, samrat yantra, jai prakash, ram

yantra and niyati chakra; each of which are used to for various astronomical calculations.

Qutub Minar in Delhi
¤ Constructed As A Holy Minar
Qutub MinarThe world famous towering Qutub Minar, started in 1192 by Qutub-ud-din Aibak (1192-98), breathes

down the

neck of the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. There is a slight difference of opinion as to its purpose: it probably was

a

tower of victory, but then again it could have been built to be a minar (tower), attached to the Quwwat-ul-

Islam

mosque, for the muezzin (priest) to climb up top for a prayer.

¤ Other Belief of Its Construction

Among Delhites there are lots of other theories about the origin of the tower. Some say it was the observatory

of the

great scientist Aryabhatta of ancient India, other claim that it was built by Prithvi Chauhan for his daughter

to see

the Yamuna. In fact everything short of an extraterrestrial origin has been attributed to it. The presence of

the

ancient non-rusting Iron Pillar within the complex further appears to add credence to the first theory. However

the

tower, its entire design and architecture are undisputedly Islamic and all the other theories are just matters

of

wild surmise.
Considering how shortchanged he was for time, it is doubtful that Qutub-ud-din got much further than a couple

of

levels of the minar, in fact many suggest that lived to see only the first storey complete. Altamash, his

successor,

completed the remaining tower.

¤ Measures Taken To Keep The Minar In Perfect Shape

It is clear that the tower was very close to the sultanate’s heart, since repeated efforts were made to keep it

in

perfect shape. In its long career, the tower got hit by lightening twice – something that, of course, with its

height

it was literally asking for. Once during the reign of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq, who very decently repaired the

ensuing

damage. The next time was in the indefatigable builder Feroze Shah Tughlaq’s time, when the topmost storey got

damaged. Feroze Shah, who of course couldn’t well leave things alone, not only repaired the floor, but also

sneaked

in another level.

The Mecca of all the lovers, without places to go and extra money to spend in Delhi, is the beautiful and

serene Lodi

Garden. Its original purpose was hardly that however. It was designed over two dynasties – the Sayyids and

Lodis (15

-16 th century) – to be a sort of everyone-take-one graveyard for their families.

During the British times the garden went under the moniker of Lady Willingdon Park, all that stopped with the

Independence when they reverted back to being good old Lodi garden. In 1968, the gardens were spruced and

relandscaped by JA Stein and Garrett Eckbo. There are several tombs in this area. You can climb to the top of

some of

them. However the steps are very steep and dark so it’s strictly not recommended. Apart from breaking your

neck, you

might end up being bitten by a snake or something
The result of this combined effort is an interesting mix in styles that is clearly discernable all over the

tower.

Each of the original three storeys has different designs. The base storey has alternate angular and circular

flutings

while those of the second one are round and the third one has only angular flutings. Their alignment is

mercifully

similar, so giving the tower a rhythmic harmony. The pretty projecting balconies have a very interesting

pattern,

with icicle-shaped pendentive (an intricate design in which triangular pieces of vaulting spring from the

corners of

a rectangular area and support a rounded or polygonal dome) type of brackets. The attractiveness of the

balconies is

heightened by the bands of sonorous inscriptions. The diameter (at base) of the Qutub Minar is 14.32m and about

2.75m

at the top.

¤ The Attraction of Crownig Cupola

The tower had a crowning cupola on the top at one time, however this was struck down sometime in the early 19th

century, an earthquake felled it. This was replced by a well meaning English engineer Major Smith. However it

must

have looked quite an eyesore for when Lord Hardinge was Governor-general of British India, he had it removed.

You can

see it now on the spruce lawns of the Qutub complex. Come to think of it, it must have been eyesore – it’s

called

Smith’s folly.

Russian Japanese English message


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

後悔される革新、inconveinence の下の 場所。

このセクションの情報のためのmusham@gmail.com で私達に連絡し

なさい 旅行の協同に Yo u に感謝しなさい

Numisphilately とa のncient 科学のあなたのs の友人

91+09441816605 Musham Damodhar musham@gmail.com

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Место под сожаленной РЕНОВАЦИЕЙ, inconveinence.

свяжитесь мы на musham@gmail.com для информации в

этом

разделе

Возблагодарите Yo у для сотрудничества путешествия

Ваш друг с в науке Numisphilately и а ncient

musham damodhar, 91+09441816605, musham@gmail.com

################################################

Local sob o rENOVATION, inconveinence lamentado.

contatar-nos em musham@gmail.com para a informação

nesta seção Obrigado

Seu amigo em Numisphilately e na ciência antiga

musham damodhar91+09441816605, musham@gmail.com

@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@

Site under RENOVATION,inconveinence regretted.

contact us at musham@gmail.com for information in this

section

Thank YOu

Yours friend in Numisphilately and ancient Science

musham damodhar91+09441816605, musham@gmail.com

TO BE CONTINUED LATER MAIL TO MUSHAM@GMAIL.COM

Friday, August 14, 2009

SAMOGITIA NEW NATION BANKNOTE VERY RARE


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

BANK NOTE FLAG OF SAMAGOTIA NATION


MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM

Thanks THANKS Thanks for your RESPONSE




MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @
MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM
One can pay back the loan of gold, but one dies forever in debt to those who are kind
Silent gratitude isn't much use to anyone. SO lets do some exchanges
The only people with whom you should try to get even are those who have helped you.
I would maintain that thanks are the highest form of thought, and that gratitude is happiness doubled by wonder.
Something that has always puzzled me all my life is why, when I am in special need of help, the good deed is usually done by somebody on whom I have no claim.
How far that little candle throws his beams!
So shines a good deed in a naughty world
“I find that the more willing I am to be grateful for the small things in life, the bigger stuff just seems to show up from unexpected sources, and I am constantly looking forward to each day with all the surprises that keep coming my way!”
World gave me a gift of 86,400 seconds today. Have you used one to say “thank you?”".
“Make it a habit to tell people thank you. To express your appreciation, sincerely and without the expectation of anything in return. Truly appreciate those around you, and you’ll soon find many others around you. Truly appreciate life, and you’ll find that you have more of it.”
“You simply will not be the same person two months from now after consciously giving thanks each day for the abundance that exists in your life. And you will have set in motion an ancient spiritual law: the more you have and are grateful for, the more will be given you.”

Monday, August 3, 2009

CLAY LETTER with COVER,3500 YEARS OLD,


Old Akkadian, which was used until the end of the third century BCE, differs from both Babylonian and Assyrian; and was displaced by these dialects. The two dialects, which were to become the primary dialects, were easily distinguishable by the 21st century BCE. Old Babylonian, along with the closely related dialect Mariotic, is clearly more innovative than the Old Assyrian dialect and the more distantly related Eblaite language. For this reason, forms like lu-prus (I will decide) are first encountered in Old Babylonian instead of the older la-prus(even though it was archaic compared to Akkadian). On the other hand, Assyrian developed certain innovations as well, such as the "Assyrian vowel harmony" (which is not comparable to that found in Turkish or Finnish). Eblaite is even more archaic, retaining a productive dual and a relative pronoun declined in case, number and gender. Both of which had already disappeared in Old Akkadian.
Old Babylonian was the language of king Hammurabi and his code, which was one of the oldest collections of laws in the world.
The Middle Babylonian (or Assyrian) period started in the 1500s BCE. The division comes from the Kassite invasion of Babylonia around 1550 BCE, and their reign for 300 years. The Kassites gave up their own language in favor of Akkadian, but they had little influence on the language. At its apogee, Middle Babylonian was the written language of diplomacy of the entire ancient Orient, including Egypt. During this period, a large number of loan words were included in the language from North West Semitic languages and Hurrian; however, the use of these words was confined to the fringes of the Akkadian speaking territory.