Friday, March 6, 2009
HISTORY OF SATAVAHANA RULERS ,firstname.lastname@example.org,
MUSHAM BANKNOTES ANCIENTCOINS,STAMPS,POSTALHISTORY MY @ MUSHAM3@GMAIL.COM
There are divergent views regarding the starting period of the Satavahana chronology and the total duration of the dynasty. According to D. R. Bhandarkar the Satavahana rule commenced in the 6 th or 5 th century B.C. But other scholars did not accept this view. Dr. M. Rama Rao held the view that the Satavahanas flourished between 221A.D.
Simukha (221-198 B.C.)
After the death of Ashoka the Mauryan Empire declined rapidly. Taking advantage of the confusion in north India, the Satavahanas asserted their independence. Under the able rule of Simukha, the founder of the dynasty, the Satavahana power extended towards western Deccan. He ruled for about 23 years and was succeeded by his younger brother Krishna in 198 B.C.
Krishna (198-180 B.C. )
Krishna continued the policy of his brother and extended the empire towards the west as far as Nasik. It is unfortunate that very few details are available about him. Even his figure is not found among the Naneghat relievos. These relievos constructed under the order of Naganika, the queen of Satakarni 1 who succeeded Krishna, contain the figures of Naganika, her children, her father, her husband and his father. The absence of Krishna’s figure in Naneghat relievos led many to believe that he had usurped the throne.
Satakarni (180-170 B.C.)
We know many details about the reign of Satakarni from the Naneghat inscription issued by his wife Naganika or Nayanika. She was the daughter of Maharathi Tranakayior and made her personality felt in the affairs of the kingdom. Satakarni was the contemporary of Pusyamitra Sunga of Magadha and Kharavela of kalinga. From the Naneghat inscription it is evident that Satakarni conquer western Malwa, Anupa or the Narmada valley and Vidarbha. The inscription further states that Satakarni performed the Aswamedha sacrifices and one Rajasuya sacrifice in commemoration of these victories and proclaimed himself Samrat and assumed the titles of ‘Dakshinapathi’ and ‘Aprathihatahachakra’. He succeeded by his minor son Vedasri. Naganika acted as regent and carried on the administration. Vedasri died a minor and was succeeded by is brother Satisri. Not much is known about these kings and their successors. The next important ruler was Satakarni 2 who ruled from 152-96 B.C.
Satakarni II (152-96 B.C.)
The long rule of Satakarni II is memorable in the history of the Satavahanas since Pataliputra; the famous capital of Magadha came under their control for the first time. Satakarni II extended his empire by conquering Vidisa and Kalinga. But towards the end of his reign, the Sakas had conquered western Deccan. Very little is known about the successors of Satakarni II. The next important king was Hala who from 19-24 A.D.
Hala (19-24 A.D.)
Hala, the seventeenth king of the Satavahanas is mentioned by Vatsyayana in his Kamasutra and Rajasekhara in his Kavya Mimamsa. Hala patronized literature and arts. The Prakrit work Saptasati is ascribed to him. Gunadhya the author of Brihat Katha was his contemporary. As he was a patron of poets, he was known by the title Kavivatsala. He married a Ceylonese princess on the banks of the Sapta-Godavari-Bhima River. After Hala, once again there is a break in the history of the Satavahanas. They lost their province in central and western India and also Magadha. They were confined to their home territories in the Andhra Desa.
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