Saturday, August 30, 2008

Animals on republic india banknotes,jaipur king photo





India's Independence Day is celebrated on August 15 to commemorate its independence from the British rule and its birth as a sovereign nation on that day in 1947. The day is a national holiday in India. It is celebrated all over the country through flag-hoisting ceremony. The main celebration takes place in New Delhi, where the Prime Minister hoists the National Flag at the Red Fort and delivers a nationally televised speech from its ramparts. In his speech, he highlights the achievements of his government during the past year, raises important issues and gives a call for further development. The Prime Minister also pays his tribute to leaders of the freedom struggle.
On 3 June 1947, Viscount Lord Louis Mountbatten, the last British Governor-General of India, announced the partitioning of the British Indian Empire into India and Pakistan, under the provisions of the Indian Independence Act 1947. At the stroke of midnight, on 15 August 1947, India became an independent nation. This was preceded by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru's famous speech titled Tryst with destiny.
“ At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom. A moment comes, which comes but rarely in history, when we step out from the old to the new, when an age ends, and when the soul of a nation, long suppressed, finds utterance..... We end today a period of ill fortune, and India discovers herself again.
Upon independence, India was given Dominion status by the British. At Prime Minister Nehru's and his deputy Sardar Vallabhai Patel's request, Lord Mountbatten continued to be the Governor General of India. Governor General is equivalent to the current Indian President status. He continued in office until June 1949. Thereafter Chakravarti Rajagopalachari became the Governor General. He was in office until 1950. In all these years (until 1950), King George VI continued as the King of India.

Vallabhai Patel took on the responsibility of unifying 565 princely states, steering efforts by his “iron fist in a velvet glove” policies, exemplified by the use of military force to integrate Junagadh and Hyderabad state into India.

British india banknotes GEORGE VI notes



The Act of 1858, in transferring power from the Honourable East India Company to the Crown, established a new system of government. The Court of Directors, Court of Proprietors, and Board of Control were replaced by a Secretary of State for India (a cabinet minister of the British government), assisted by a Council, which he was required to consult, except in matters of urgency. Members of the Secretary of State's Council were at first appointed for life, later for ten years. A Viceroy & Governor General was to be appointed, normally for a five year term of office, and was to reside in India, and supreme authority in India was the Viceroy's. All executive orders and all legislation were made in the name of 'the Governor General in Council
The three longest established Provinces of British India were the Madras Presidency (established 1640), the Bombay Presidency (the Honourable East India Company's headquarters were at Bombay from 1687), and the Bengal Presidency (established 1690). To these were added: Ajmer-Merwara (ceded by Sindhia of Gwalior in 1818); Coorg (annexed 1834); the North-Western Provinces (established 1835 out of the Bengal Presidency, later renamed the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh; Punjab (established 1849); Nagpur Province (created 1853, merged into Central Provinces 1861); the Central Provinces (created 1861 from Nagpur Province and the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories, renamed the Central Provinces and Berar 1903); Burma (lower Burma annexed 1852, made a province 1862, upper Burma added 1886, separated from British India 1937); Assam (separated from Bengal 1874); Andaman and Nicobar Islands (established as a province 1875); Baluchistan (organized into a province 1887); North-West Frontier Province (created 1901 out of districts of the Punjab Province); East Bengal (separated from Bengal 1905, but reintegrated 1912); Bihar and Orissa (separated from Bengal 1912, renamed Bihar 1935; Orissa (separated from Bihar 1935); Delhi (separated from Punjab 1912, when it became the capital of British India); Aden (separated from Bombay Presidency as a province of India, 1932, became Crown Colony of Aden, 1937); Sindh (separated from Bombay 1935); Panth-Piploda (new province, 1942).

There were seventeen remaining Provinces of British India at the time of partition and independence: Ajmer-Merwara-Kekri, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Baluchistan, Bengal Province, Bihar, Bombay Province, Central Provinces and Berar, Coorg, Delhi Province, Madras Province, North-West Frontier Province, Panth-Piploda, Orissa, Punjab, Sindh, and the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.

Of these, three, Baluchistan, the North-West Frontier, and Sindh became parts of Pakistan, while two more, Bengal and Punjab, were partitioned between India and Pakistan, and the remainder became provinces of the Union of India.

Hyderabad Nizam Bank notes



The first Nizams ruled on behalf of the Mughal emperors. But, after the death of Aurangazeb, the Nizams split away from the Mughals to form their kingdom. When the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states. The Nizams retained power over Hyderabad State until its annexation into the Indian Union in 1948, after Indian independence.

The Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers; however there was a period of 13 years after the rule of the first Nizam when three of his sons (Nasir Jung, Muzafar Jung and Salabath Jung) ruled. They were not officially recognized as the rulers.

A legend about the first Nizam states that, on one of his hunting trips he was offered some kulchas (an Indian bread) by a holy man and was asked to eat as many as he could. The Nizam could eat seven kulchas and the holy man then prophesied that seven generations of his family would rule the state.

The Nizams, by an honored Hyderabad tradition that no Nizam has ever left India no matter how good a reason might exist for doing so, they believed, "the Sovereign is too precious to his people ever to leave India.".

Ever since Hyderabad stood aloof from the great first war of Indian Independence of 1857 while betraying many Indians and also at time acting against those who opposed the British such as Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan, its Royal Family have been accorded by British Royalty special honors and the Nizam was given the official status of Faithful Ally.

Nether india coins VOC nagapatnam coin



In 1602 the States General of the United Provinces, known as the Netherlands, chartered the United East India Company (the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, called the VOC) with the mission of exploring for a passage to the Indies and claiming any unchartered territories for the United Provinces. On September 3, 1609 the English explorer Henry Hudson, on behalf of the United East India Company, entered the area now known as New York in an attempt to find a northwest passage to the Indies. He searched every costal inlet and on the 12th took his ship, the Halve Maen (Half Moon), up the river which now bears his name, as far as Albany and claimed the land for his employer. Although no passage was discovered the area turned out to be one of the best fur trading regions in North America.

As early as 1611 the Dutch merchant Arnout Vogels set sail in the ship St. Pieter for what was probably the first Dutch trading expedition to the Hudson Bay. This secretive mission was so successful in 1612 Vogels chartered the ship Fortuyn which made two, back to back trips to the area. The initial trip of the Fortuyn was under the command of Captain Adriaen Block. Two months before the Fortuyn returned on her second trip, Adriaen Block landed in Hudson Bay in a different ship. Block did not try to keep his activities a secret, he traded liquor, cloth, firearms and trinkets for beaver and otter pelts; however, before he could leave the Hudson for an early spring crossing to Amsterdam he saw the arrival of another Dutch ship, the Jonge Tobias, under the command of Thijs Volckertsz Mossel. Competition to exploit the newly discovered land was underway.

On October 11, 1614 merchants from the cities of Amsterdam and Hoorn formed The New Netherland Company receiving a three year monopoly for fur trading in the newly discovered region from the States General of the United Provinces. In 1615 the company erected Fort Orange on Castle Island near Albany and began trading with the Indians for furs. Although merchants came to New Netherland for business purposes, the area was not colonized and at the end of the three year period the company's monopoly was not renewed. At that point the land was opened to all Dutch traders. Eventually the States General decided to grant an monopoly to a company that would colonized the area. There was a need to have a permanent political presence in their colonies in New Netherland, Brazil and Africa against the possibility of an English, French or Spanish challenge.
The Dutch West India Company and Colonization

In 1621 the newly incorporated Dutch West India Company (the Westindische Compagnie or WIC) obtained a twenty four year trading monopoly in America and Africa and sought to have the New Netherland area formally recognized as a province. Once provincial status was granted in June of 1623 the company began organizing the first permanent Dutch settlement in New Netherland. On March 29, 1624 the ship, Nieu Nederlandt (New Netherland) departed with the first wave of settlers, consisting not of Dutch but rather of thirty Flemish Walloon families. The families were spread out over the entire territory claimed by the company. To the north a few families were left at the mouth of the Connecticut River, while to the south some families were settled at Burlington Island on the Delaware River. Others were left on Nut Island, now called Governor's Island, at the mouth of the Hudson) River, while the remaining families were taken up the Hudson to Fort Orange (Albany). Later in 1624 and through 1625 six additional ships sailed for New Netherland with colonists, livestock and supplies.

It soon became clear the northern and southern outposts were untenable and so had to be abandoned. Also, due to a war between the Mohawk and Mahican tribes in 1625, the women and children at Fort Orange were forced to move to safety. At this point, in the spring of 1626, the Director General of the company, Peter Minuit, came to the province. Possibly motivated to erect a safe haven for the families forced to leave Fort Orange, at some point between May 4 and June 26, 1626 Minuit purchased the island of Manhattan from the Indians for some 60 guilders worth of trinkets. He immediately started the construction of Fort New Amsterdam under the direction of the company engineer Cryn Fredericksz.

Because of the dangers and hardships of life in a new land some colonists decided to return to the homeland in 1628. By 1630 the total population of New Netherland was about 300, many being French speaking Walloons. It is estimated about 270 lived in the area surrounding Fort Amsterdam, primarily working as farmers, while about 30 were at Fort Orange, the center of the Hudson valley fur trade with the Mohawks.

New Netherland was a company owned and operated business, run on a for profit basis by the directors of the West India Company. The intent of the firm was to make a profit for the investors who had purchased shares in the company. WIC paid skilled individuals, as doctors and craftsmen, to move to New Netherland and also sent over over and paid soldiers for military protection of the settlements; the company also built forts and continually sent over provisions for the settlers. All the New Netherland positions one would usually consider government or public service jobs, were in fact, company jobs held by WIC employees. Laws were made by the company appointed Director General in the province with the consent of the company directors in Amsterdam; even the New Netherland provincial treasury was actually the company treasury. All taxes, fines and trading profits went to the company and the company paid the bills. Basically the company profit was whatever was left after expenses had been paid (it should be noted expenses included ample salaries for the Amsterdam directors). WIC soon discovered the expenses associated with establishing and expanding a new colony were considerable. In order to increase their profit margin the company sought to find what might be thought of as subcontractors. The first attempt at partnerships was the Patroonship plan.

Portuguese india


Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama first visited India in 1498. Portugal soon became the first European nation to establish colonies in India, and for many years enjoyed a profitable monopoly on European trade with India. With the coming of the British and Dutch in the 17th century, Portuguese power declined, until all that was left were three minor outposts on the west coast of India. In 1961, after years of preaching non-violence, the Indian armed forces invaded these last remaining outposts and forcibly annexed them, thus bringing an end to this long series of colonial coins. We offer the 1961 Portuguese India 10 Centavos in Uncirculated condition. It saw the last coin produced before the Indian invasion. The coin features the arms of Portuguese India.

Denmark indian colony coins rare



Denmark established its first colony in India in 1620. A mint was later established to provide coinage for the colonies. Its coins tended to be small crude pieces that were hand struck from hand engraved dies. Due to falling profits and increasing costs of maintaining the colonies, Denmark sold its possessions in India to the British East India Company in 1845, thus bringing an end to its colonial era and the, coinage of Danish India. We recently obtained a hoard of these small, scarce, crude copper coins of Danish India. We have not had time to sort through the coins, so will offer them as they come. Because the coins are crudely struck grading them is sometimes difficult, so we will just call them crude and worn.
The trade was maintained with purchased pieces of eight which could be exchanged for Indian silver and gold coins on demand. The treaty with the nayak of Tanjore did not give the Danes the right to mint their own coins at Tranquebar. In fact no permission was needed for minting small coins as long as they were for use only within their own territory.

During the first 80 years or so, the smallest payments and trading transactions in the colony e.g. the fee for a stand and payment of duty for importing and exporting goods were enable by minting coins of the value of 1 kas and some few of the value of 2 kas, mainly in lead but a few in copper and from 1689 exclusively in copper. During the reign of Frederik IV the first silver coins were minted as well as 2, 4 and 10 kas coins in copper.

Tranquebar is the only place outside Denmark where the Danes minted extensively for their own local use. Many of the coins have inscription with Danish ship names or the name of a Danish Town. From Frederik III many of the coins bear the Danish coat-of-arms as inscription. There are minted several diffrent types (kas) in lead from the kings Christian IV to Christian V, and copper-coins from Frederik III to Christian VIII. Silver-coins are minted from Fredrik IV to Frederik VI and one gold-coin from Christian VII. The last Danish coin minted in Tranquebar, are a copper 4 kas from 1845, the same year Tranquebar was sold to England.

1819 to1890 Bank of Bengal Documents very rare



History of Banking in India
India has been one of the earliest issuers of coins in the world (6th Century BC). The origin of the word "rupee" is found in the word rup or rupa, which means "silver" in many Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi. The Sanskrit word rupyakam means coin of silver. The derivative word Rupaya was used to denote the coin introduced by Sher Shah Suri during his reign from 1540 to 1545 CE. The original Rupaya was a silver coin weighing 175 grains troy (about 11.34 grams) [1]. The coin has been used since then, even during the times of British India. Formerly the rupee was divided into 16 annas, 64 paise, or 192 pies. Decimalisation occurred in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in 1869,
A huge divide between silver-based and gold-based economies resulted. The worst affected were economies with silver standard that traded mainly with economies with gold standard. With discovery of more and more silver reserves, those currencies based on gold continued to rise in value and those based on silver were declining due to demonetization of silver. For India which carried out most of its trade with gold based nations, especially Britain, the impact of this shift was profound. As the price of silver continued to fall, so too did the exchange value of the rupee, when measured against pound sterling.
Without a sound and effective banking system in India it cannot have a healthy economy. The banking system of India should not only be hassle free but it should be able to meet new challenges posed by the technology and any other external and internal factors.
For the past three decades India's banking system has several outstanding achievements to its credit. The most striking is its extensive reach. It is no longer confined to only metropolitans or cosmopolitans in India. In fact, Indian banking system has reached even to the remote corners of the country. This is one of the main reasons of India's growth process.
The government's regular policy for Indian bank since 1969 has paid rich dividends with the nationalisation of 14 major private banks of India.

Not long ago, an account holder had to wait for hours at the bank counters for getting a draft or for withdrawing his own money. Today, he has a choice. Gone are days when the most efficient bank transferred money from one branch to other in two days. Now it is simple as instant messaging or dial a pizza. Money have become the order of the day.

The first bank in India, though conservative, was established in 1786. From 1786 till today, the journey of Indian Banking System can be segregated into three distinct phases. They are as mentioned below:
• Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian Banks
The East India Company established Bank of Bengal (1819), Bank of Bombay (1844) and Bank of Madras (1845) as independent units and called it Presidency Banks. These three banks were amalgamated in 1920 and Imperial Bank of India was established which started as private shareholders banks, mostly Europeans shareholders.

In 1869 Allahabad Bank was established and first time exclusively by Indians, Punjab National Bank Ltd. was set up in 1894 with headquarters at Lahore. Between 1906 and 1913, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Indian Bank, and Bank of Mysore were set up. Reserve Bank of India came in 1935.
The site for bank was carefully selected, being protected by the Hooghly River on the west, a creek to the north, and by salt lakes about two and a half miles to the east. There were three large villages along the east bank of the river Ganges, named, Sutanuti, Gobindapur and Kalikata. These three villages were bought by the British from local land lords. The Mughal emperor granted East India Company freedom of trade in return for a yearly payment of 3,000 rupees.

Kolkata was just a village before the British came to India; the capital city of Bengal was Murshidabad, around 60 miles north of Kolkata. In 1756, Siraj-ud-daullah, Nawab of Bengal, attacked the city and captured the fort. Kolkata was recaptured in 1757 by Robert Clive when the British defeated Siraj-ud-daullah on the battle field of Plassey. In 1772, Kolkata became the capital of British India, and the first Governor General Warren Hastings moved all important offices from Murshidabad to Kolkata. Till 1912, Kolkata was the capital of India, when the British moved the capital city to Delhi. In 1947, When India gained freedom and the country got partitioned between India and Pakistan, Kolkata became the capital city of the state of West Bengal.

Friday, August 29, 2008

Khadhi industry handmade YARN


Khadhi industry handmade YARN After indipendence this was given imputus and were permitted to use their own currency till 1964 till the daeth of nehru then slowly withdrawn A RARE CASE OF BANK NOTE ISSUE FOR TEXTILE HANDLOOM WORKERS IN INDIA ONLY

Khadhi industry handmade YARN

Gandhi comm two rupees

King PHOTO series JAIPUR king

Britishindia one rupee banknote georgeVI


Britishindia one rupee banknote georgeVI

NO FLAG ON FLAGPOLE OVER INDIAN PARLIAMENT


NO FLAG ON FLAGPOLE OVER INDIAN PARLIAMENT The highest LAWMAKING house of reprentatives of INDIA on 50 RUPEES bank note of INDIAN grave ERROR

First one rupee of Republic INDIA, KRK MENON

NEW 500 rupees UNC gandhi


NEW 500 rupees UNC with gandhi

ERROR rupayyaa in place of rupaeee in old 100 rupee note



ERROR rupayyaa in place of rupaeee in old 100 rupee note

The Chartered bank of India,Australia&China bank item Check


The Chartered bank of India,Australia&China bank item Check ask for some other items
musham@gmail.com see http://rareindianbanknotes.blogspot.com/

100 rupees note with DAM


100 rupees note with DAM

British india banknote of GeorgeVI front face RARE


British india banknote of GeorgeVI front face RARE there is another note in new design with side face

Watermarked plain paper of BRITISH INDIA 5 Rupees



Watermarked plain paper of BRITISH INDIA 5 Rupees as the ship carrying this paper was drowned in Suez canal region during world war II .this paper was retrieved some decades later here is sample such RARE banknote BLANK sheet

Thursday, August 28, 2008

Printer SAMPLE of princely states crests of India

Printer SAMPLE of princely states crests of India,ancient coins auction, auction of princely states documents, banknotes auction, damodhar rao, indian banknotes, old stamps auction, Printer SAMPLE of princely states crests of India Printer SAMPLE of princely states crests of India is unique are from royal family only unusual and rare For more info contact I exchange indian banknotes,modern ancient COINS,BANKNOTES,STAMPS,world,india,british india,bank notes,COINS STAMPS,FDC all in THEMES;Modern WORLD COINS,ANCIENT COINS FROM ALEXANDER PERIOD, BIMETAL,SHAPES OF COINS, FAMOUS THEMES;UNRECOGNIZED NEW NATIONS,COUNTRY SETS,world postal history from 1840,kings documents,ETC see blogs for info ok. please pass on info about me and my blog OK, NOTE:Please send notes ONLY BY registered post,OK M.DAMODHAR.RAO Plot no 52; II floor, GANESH Nagar colony, WestMarredpally secunderabad;500026 INDIA MOBILE NO +91 09441816605

Central bank of india Traveller CHEQUES


Central bank of india Traveller CHEQUES if u want more inf contact musham@gmail.com
HOBBIES

Guerilla bank notes very unique RARE


Guerilla bank notes very unique RARE

POPE JOHN PAUL II VISIT NOTE 1981


POPE JOHN PAUL II VISIT NOTE 1981 dONT USE POBOX no now closed
M.DAMODHAR.RAO
BlockNo30,1floor,
SanjevayyaNagarcolony,
WestMarredpally
secunderabad; AP;
PIN 500026;india

IONION ISLANDS NEAR GREECE RARE BANK


IONION ISLANDS NEAR GREECE RARE BANK

Railway check of FIRST NATIONAL BANK 1922 OF USA


Railway check of FIRST NATIONAL BANK 1922

RBI bankers cheque for 100,00,000=00 of 1956 very high value


RBI bankers cheque for 100,00,000=00 of 1956 very high value

William Shakesphere specimen test note GIORI


Shakesphere specimen test note,for showing this as their sample for nations who want to consider them to print notes in their printing company GIORI

PRINCE OF WHALES PHOTO THICK CARD


PRINCE OF WHALES PHOTO THICK CARD

Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 18416 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. He was the first British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, which was renamed the House of Windsor by his son, George V.

Before his accession to the throne, Edward held the title of Prince of Wales and was heir apparent to the throne longer than anyone in English or British history.During the long widowhood of his mother, Queen Victoria, he was largely excluded from political power and came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite.

The Edwardian period, which covered Edward's reign and was named after him, coincided with the start of a new century and heralded significant changes in technology and society, including powered flight and the rise of socialism and the Labour movement. Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet, the reform of the Army Medical Services,[2] and the reorganisation of the British army after the Second Boer War. His work in fostering good relations between Great Britain and other European countries, especially France, for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker", was unable to prevent the outbreak of World War I in 191

Bow and Arrows with Elephant wealth symble,CHERA



Bow and Arrows with Elephant wealth symble of CHERA see info on other post

DANCE OVER POT WITH CANDLE LIGHTS ,INDIA IS GREAT


DANCE OVER POT WITH CANDLE LIGHTS ,was performed recently,it was a thrill to watch for the audience breath with tension and also for the the DANCER my dughter school celebrations ,St Anns,my daughter name Musham apoorva expert in painting stamp collection etc
DANCE OVER POT WITH CANDLE LIGHTS, THIS DANCE TAKES DECADES TO PRACTICE,and will be a thrill to sea and for the performer on its completion was at my dau

Byzantine coin in cup shape rare with JESUS,king potrait


The term "Byzantine" itself comes from "Byzantium", the name that the city of Constantinople had before it became the capital of Constantine. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.

The designation of the Empire as "Byzantine" began in Western Europe in 1557, when German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ By­zantinæ, a collection of Byzantine sources. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre (Corpus Scriptorum Historiæ Byzantinæ), and in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularized the use of Byzantine among French authors, such as Montesquieu.It was not until the 19th century, however, with the birth of modern Greece, that the term "Byzantine" came into general use in the Western world.

Before this, the Empire was described by Western Europeans as Imperium Graecorum (Empire of the Greeks)—Byzantine claims to Roman inheritance had been actively contested from at least the time of the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in 800. Whenever the Popes or the rulers of the West wanted to make use of the name Roman to refer to the Byzantine emperors, they preferred the term Imperator Romaniæ instead of Imperator Romanorum, a title that Westerners maintained applied only to Charlemagne and his successors
Constantine moved the seat of the Empire, and introduced important changes into its civil and religious constitution.In 330, he founded Constantinople as a second Rome on the site of Byzantium, which was well-positioned astride the trade routes between East and West; it was a superb base from which to guard the Danube river, and was reasonably close to the Eastern frontiers. Constantine also began the building of the great fortified walls, which were expanded and rebuilt in subsequent ages. J. B. Bury asserts that "the foundation of Constantinople [...] inaugurated a permanent division between the Eastern and Western, the Greek and the Latin, halves of the Empire—a division to which events had already pointed—and affected decisively the whole subsequent history of Europe."

Constantine built upon the administrative reforms introduced by Diocletian.He stabilized the coinage (the gold solidus that he introduced became a highly prized and stable currency], and made changes to the structure of the army. To divide administrative responsibilities, Constantine replaced the single praetorian prefect, who had traditionally exercised both military and civil functions, with regional prefects enjoying civil authority alone. In the course of the 4th century, four great sections emerged from these Constantinian beginnings, and the practice of separating civil from military authority persisted until the 7th century.

Under Constantine, Christianity did not become the exclusive religion of the state, but enjoyed imperial preference, since the Emperor supported it with generous privileges: clerics were exempted from personal services and taxation, Christians were preferred for administrative posts, and bishops were entrusted with judicial responsibilities.Constantine established the principle that emperors should not settle questions of doctrine, but should summon general ecclesiastical councils for that purpose. The Synod of Arles was convened by Constantine, and the First Council of Nicaea showcased his claim to be head of the Church.

The state of the Empire in 395 may be described in terms of the outcome of Constantine's work. The dynastic principle was established so firmly that the emperor who died in that year, Theodosius I, could bequeath the imperial office jointly to his sons: Arcadius in the East and Honorius in the West. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over the full extent of the empire in both its halves.

WORLD WAR ONE ARMY MEDAL REDCROSS 2 SOLDIERS



WORLD WAR ONE ARMY MEDAL REDCROSS 2 SOLDIERS HURT IN WAR THAT WAS AN RARE honor to get that medal during those days is for sale with contact musham@gmail.com

Indipendence MEDAL of 26 january 1950


A medal is usually a coin-like sculpted object of metal or other material that has been engraved with an insignia, portrait or other artistic rendering. A medal may be awarded to a person or organization as a form of recognition for athletic, military, scientific, academic or some other kind of achievement. Medals may also be created to commemorate individuals or events or even as works of artistic expression in their own right. There are also devotional medals, which may be worn as a matter of religious faith. Medals are popular collectable items either as a form of exonumia or “paranumismatica”, or of militaria phaleristics.

The most common form of medal is round and made of bronze, but they may be produced in any shape desired and formed of any material that is suitable for sculpting, molding, casting, striking or stamping. A medallion is a large medal which may be commemorative or produced as a work of art or souvenir, and occasionally referred to as a “table medal”; in colloquial use, the term medallion is sometimes used to refer to ornamental jewelry worn as a pendant as part of a necklace. Art medals can also be produced in a parallelogram shape as a plaquette or larger plaque (the latter term also having non-medallic applications
A medal has three basic parts: the obverse (the “front” surface of the medal, which will contain the portrait if one is present), the reverse (the “back” surface of the medal, which may be blank or engraved with a design), and the rim (the outer edge of the medal.) The rim of an art medal is usually blank, but may be inscribed with a motto, privy mark, engraver symbols, an assayer’s purity markings for precious metals, or the series number of a medal intended to be produced as a pure objet d’art in a limited-quantity production run.

Medals intended to be worn, such as military and some prize medals, have additional parts. A suspension is added to the top of the medal to hold it to a suspension ring, through which a ribbon is run and folded during the mounting process. The other end of the ribbon is usually run through a top bar, and a brooch pin is affixed to the back of the top bar for attaching the medal to the wearer’s garment. The front of the top bar often has an inscription, name, symbol or other design. Some worn medals may lack certain of these features, while others may have additional devices or attachments.

Although bronze has been the most common material employed for medals, a wide range of metallic and non-metallic media have also been used. These include precious medals like silver and gold, as well as base metals and alloys such as copper, brass, iron, aluminum, lead, zinc, nickel, white metal, pewter, and German silver. These medals might be gilded, silvered, chased, or finished in a variety of other ways.

Chera coin rare type of ARROW design unique only known one of its kind


Chera coin rare type of ARROW design unique only known one of its kind.
The Chera Dynasty Tamil was a Tamil dynasty that ruled in southern India from before the Sangam era 300 BC - 200BC until the fourteenth century CE. The early Cheras ruled Kerala, Kongu Nadu and Salem. Their capital was Vanchi Muthur, though this may have been located either at present-day Kodungallur in Thrissur district of Kerala or else at Karur
In early Tamil literature the great Chera rulers are referred to as Cheral, Kuttuvan, Irumporai, Kollipurai and Athan. Chera rulers were also called Kothai or Makothai. The nobility among the Cheras were called Cheraman in general. The word Kerala, of possible Prakrit origins, does not appear in Sangam Literature. Ashoka's edicts mention an independent dynasty known by the name Ceraputta, who were outside Ashoka's empire. The unknown author of Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions Chera as Cerobothra ("Keralaputhra") whose capital is Karur, while Pliny, the Roman historian of the first century, calls it Caelobothras. It is believed that religiously the Cheras were Shaivites. The kings of the dynasty referred to themselves as Vanavar
The only source available for us regarding the early Chera Kings is the anthologies of the Sangam literature. Scholars now generally agree that this literature belongs to the first few centuries CE.[4] The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled. The Sangam literature is full of names of the kings and the princes, and of the poets who extolled them. Despite a rich literature that depicts the life and work of these people, these are not worked into connected history so far. Their capital is stated to be modern Karur in Tamilnadu.

Pathirruppaththu, the fourth book in the Ettuthokai anthology mentions a number of Chera Kings of the Chera dynasty. Each King is praised in ten songs sung by the Court Poet

Chera coin rare type of ARROW design unique only known one of its kind


Chera coin rare type of ARROW design unique only known one of its kind.
The Chera Dynasty Tamil was a Tamil dynasty that ruled in southern India from before the Sangam era 300 BC - 200BC until the fourteenth century CE. The early Cheras ruled Kerala, Kongu Nadu and Salem. Their capital was Vanchi Muthur, though this may have been located either at present-day Kodungallur in Thrissur district of Kerala or else at Karur
In early Tamil literature the great Chera rulers are referred to as Cheral, Kuttuvan, Irumporai, Kollipurai and Athan. Chera rulers were also called Kothai or Makothai. The nobility among the Cheras were called Cheraman in general. The word Kerala, of possible Prakrit origins, does not appear in Sangam Literature. Ashoka's edicts mention an independent dynasty known by the name Ceraputta, who were outside Ashoka's empire. The unknown author of Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions Chera as Cerobothra ("Keralaputhra") whose capital is Karur, while Pliny, the Roman historian of the first century, calls it Caelobothras. It is believed that religiously the Cheras were Shaivites. The kings of the dynasty referred to themselves as Vanavar
The only source available for us regarding the early Chera Kings is the anthologies of the Sangam literature. Scholars now generally agree that this literature belongs to the first few centuries CE.[4] The internal chronology of this literature is still far from settled. The Sangam literature is full of names of the kings and the princes, and of the poets who extolled them. Despite a rich literature that depicts the life and work of these people, these are not worked into connected history so far. Their capital is stated to be modern Karur in Tamilnadu.

Pathirruppaththu, the fourth book in the Ettuthokai anthology mentions a number of Chera Kings of the Chera dynasty. Each King is praised in ten songs sung by the Court Poet